Dans ce numéro :
Guy Achard-Bayle| Véronique Magri | Alberto Bramati | Alain Guyot | Abdelmajid Senhadji El Hamchaoui | Małgorzata Sokołowicz | Isabelle Le Pape | Stefana Squatrito | Odile Gannier | Élisabeth Richard et Intareeya Leekancha | Stéphane André
Variations et répétitions dans le récit de voyage
Dirigé par Véronique Magri et Odile Gannier
Approche linguistique et stylistique
Dans le cadre théorique de la perspective fonctionnelle de la phrase, hérité de l’École de Prague, nous étudions les procédures et les marques de la répétition et de la reformulation dans l’Histoire d’un voyage faict en la terre du Bresil de Jean de L l éry, récit de voyage et de « découverte » de la fin du XVIème siècle. Aux plans référentiel et descriptif, se pose le problème de la représentation textuelle de réalités « étrangères » au moyen de « nos » outils linguistiques.
Within the theoretical framework of the functional sentence perspective (FSP), inherited from the Prague School we propose a study of the procedures and the marks of repetitions in the Jean de Léry’s travelogue: Histoire d’un voyage faict en la terre du Bresil – a story of discovery written in the late sixteenth century. At the referential and descriptive levels, the representation of “foreign” realities poses a major problem: how to “grasp” them by means of “our” linguistic tools?
Keywords: Repetition, variation, reformulation, denomination, identity, alterity, hybridity
Paraphrase reformulative et périphrase servent le processus de nomination du référent par une opération de substitution extensive, saisie à un point différent de sa réalisation. La paraphrase propose la substitution, la périphrase l’impose. La reformulation du nom commun exogène joue sur des deux processus. Celle du nom propre de lieux équivaut à l’antonomase. La paraphrase propose une reformulation alternative ; la périphrase remplace le terme exogène par un énoncé assurant la désignation directe. L’antonomase désigne l’objet du monde exogène par l’emploi d’un nom propre lui-même reformulé.
Reformulative paraphrase and periphrase serve the process of appointing the referent by an extensive substitution operation, entered at a different point from its execution. The paraphrase proposes substitution, the periphrase imposes it. The reformulation of the exogenous common name plays on both processes. The one of the proper name of places is equivalent to the antonomasia. The paraphrase proposes an alternative reformulation; the periphrase replaces the exogenous term with a statement ensuring direct designation. Antonomasia refers to the object of the exogenous world through the use of a reformulated proper name.
Keywords: Travel narrative, reformulation, antonomasia
Cet article est divisé en trois parties : dans la première partie, nous présentons les procédés narratologiques du roman ; dans la deuxième partie, nous analysons la fonction des répétitions, des polyptotes et des dérivations, en comparant le texte original avec la traduction italienne de Montini ; dans la dernière partie, nous exposons les problèmes lexicaux, grammaticaux et d’euphonie qui, dans quelques cas, semblent expliquer l’effacement de certaines répétitions dans le texte cible.
This article is divided into three parts: in the first part, we present the narratological processes of the novel; in the second part, we analyze the function of repetitions, polyptotes and derivations, comparing the original text with Montini’s Italian translation; in the last part, we expose the lexical, grammatical and euphonic problems that, in some cases, seem to explain the erasing of certain repetitions in the target text.
Keywords: Travel literature, repetitions, polyptotes, derivations, French-Italian translation
Que signifient les répétitions et les variations sur un même motif chez un auteur de récits de voyage ? Cette question est examinée à la lumière des descriptions de la caverne de l’Arveyron, en vallée de Chamonix, données par le Genevois Bourrit (1739-1819), auteur d’une dizaine de publications consacrées aux Alpes et qui relèvent de sous-genres variés du récit viatique : descriptions, récits d’excursions ou d’expéditions, guides de voyage, etc. What do repetitions and variations on a same pattern mean for an author of travelogues?
This question is considered in light of the descriptions of the Arveyron cave, in the Chamonix valley, given by Bourrit (1739-1819), native of Geneva and author of about 10 publications on the Alps which are belonging to various travelogue subgenres: descriptions, excursion or expedition accounts, travel guides, etc.
Keywords: Travelogue, literary reception, Alps, description
Le récit de voyage d’ambassade au Maroc est essentiellement stéréotypé. En sélectionnant dans ces récits la description du Sultan du Maroc Hassan Ier vers la fin du XIXe siècle, à un moment fort de l’audience royale, chez quelques voyageurs européens contemporains, les Français Pierre Loti et Gabriel Charmes, l’Italien Edmondo De Amicis, le Belge Edmond Picard, nous essaierons d’examiner comment chaque auteur a repris le topos du Sultan. Nous allons envisager les textes du point de vue sémantique et contextuel pour étudier le fonctionnement et le rôle de la description itérative du Sultan. En jouant sur la répétition des mêmes traits modulés du portrait ainsi que les stratégies narratives et discursives, le narrateur cherche-t-il à créer une dynamique textuelle ou à susciter une reconnaissance chez le lecteur ? Pour répondre à cette question, il convient de faire une étude stylistique des fragments textuels sélectionnés pour mettre en lumière les stratégies mises en jeu par chaque auteur pour représenter le même : comment le voyageur peut-il affirmer son originalité tout en étant contraint à la répétition ou à la reformulation?
The embassy travel narrative in Morocco is essentially stereotyped. By selecting in these stories the description of the Sultan of Morocco Hassan I in the late nineteenth century, at a high point of the royal audience, among some contemporary European travelers, the French Pierre Loti and Gabriel Charmes, the Italian Edmondo De Amicis, the Belgian Edmond Picard, we will try to examine how each author took over the topos of the Sultan. We will consider the texts from the semantic and contextual point of view to study the functioning and the role of the iterative description of the Sultan. By playing on the repetition of the same modulated features of the portrait as well as the narrative and discursive strategies, does the narrator seek to create a textual dynamic or to elicit recognition from the reader? To answer this question, it is advisable to make a stylistic study of the textual fragments selected to highlight the strategies put into play by each author to represent the same: how can the traveler affirm his originality while being forced to repetition or reformulation?
Keywords: Travel narrative, Sultan, description, repetition, reformulation
Małgorzata Sokołowicz «C’est au soleil couchant qu’il faut voir les pyramides». Les images solaires récurrentes dans le Voyage en Orient de Gustave Flaubert
L’article analyse les images solaires récurrentes dans la partie égyptienne du Voyage en Orient de Gustave Flaubert. La première partie présente la fréquence des images solaires et la contraste avec l’attitude de Flaubert envers la répétition. La deuxième essaie de classifier les contextes dans lesquels le soleil apparaît dans les notes de voyage et la dernière analyse quelques descriptions de couchers de soleil pour montrer comment Flaubert les construit.
The present paper ana lyses the recurrent images of the sun in the Egyptian part of the Voyage en Orient by Gustave Flaubert. The first part shows the frequency of the solar images used by the writer and contrasts it with his attitude towards repetition. The second tries to categorise the contexts where the sun appears and the last one analyses some sunsets’ descriptions and shows how Flaubert builds them.
Keywords: Flaubert, Oriental travel, sun, repetition
Si la première visite d’Henry James à Venise, en septembre 1869, ne ressemble ni à un coup de coeur, ni à une révélation, l’auteur américain ne cessera d’y revenir et accordera une place majeure à cette ville dans plusieurs de ses oeuvres. En confrontant les répétitions présentes dans les romans et nouvelles à d’autres écrits provenant de sa correspondance, nous verrons comment la représentation de Venise, qui constitue à la fin du XIXe siècle un mythe pour d’autres écrivains voyageurs, véritable « laboratoire », permet à l’auteur de transfigurer le réel tout en modulant ses souvenirs.
No doubt that the first impression of Venice wasn’t a pleasant discovery for the young Henry James in September 1869. Meanwhile, the American author will return several times and will give the Italian town a major place in many works. By considering the repetitions in his novels and short stories in relation to other writings from his correspondence, we will examine how Venice is described as a myth for the travelling writers from the end of the nineteenth century and as a “laboratory” which allows James to transfigure the reality while modulating his memories.
Keywords: Myth, remembrance, variation, travel
Restée longtemps marginale dans les itinéraires traditionnels des voyages en Italie, c’est à partir de la moitié du XVIIIe siècle que la Sicile entra dans les circuits du Grand Tour. Mais l’image de cette île à la fois sauvage et pittoresque montrée par les premiers voyageurs s’était bientôt figée et stéréotypée. Cet article se propose d’analyser la vision de la Sicile dans les Souvenirs du Comte de Forbin. Une vision qui se dit objective mais qui cède elle aussi à l’itération des contenus et des images.
Remained marginal for a long time compared to the typical itinerary of Italian travels, it was from the mid-eighteenth century that Sicily entered the Grand tour itineraries. The vision of this island, both wild and picturesque, had gradually become fixed and stereotyped. This article aims to analyze the image of Sicily in the Count of Forbin’s Souvenirs. A vision that defines itself as objective but that soon borders on the interaction of contents and images.
Keywords: Auguste de Forbin, travel literature, Souvenirs de la Sicile, picturesque
Le journal de bord comme obligation de métier pourrait paraître parfaitement ennuyeux et fastidieux, car il impose par nature la répétition contrainte, heure par heure, jour après jour, avec un vocabulaire très précis qu’il est impossible de varier ; cependant, le journal peut se jouer de l’obligation et fournir un schéma intéressant du point de vue narratologique, ce que prouve son utilisation comme modèle dans la fiction et sa consécration par le pastiche.
The logbook as a professional obligation could seem completely boring and tedious, because it is by nature under the constraint of repetition, every hour, all day long, with a very precise vocabulary that is impossible to vary; however, the logbook can play with the obligation and be interesting from a narratological point of view: it is used as a model by the fiction and is even parodied.
Keywords: Logbook, repetition, anaphora, constraint
L’article interroge la notion de répétition entendue comme le retour à l’identique du même item lexical au regard d’un corpus original constitué de 157 récits de v l oyage en ligne. Tantôt narration, tantôt description ; accumulation ou inventaire ; haut degré ou multiplication, la répétition est partout à l’oeuvre dans le récit de voyage : elle est autant un indice de son élaboration formelle, de son architecture, qu’elle est signal des changements de points de vue du locuteur.
The article questions the notion of repetition defined as the identical return of the same lexical item with regard to an original corpus made up of 157 online travel narratives: sometimes taking on the form of a story or a description; accumulation or inventory; high degree or multiplication, repetition is at work everywhere in the travel narrative: it is as much an indication of its formal elaboration, of its architecture, as it is a signal of changes in the speaker’s point of view.
Keywords: Repetition, travel narratives, reformulation, enunciation
Dans le roman Oreille rouge qu’il fait paraître en 2005, l’écrivain e Éric Chevillard s’inspire d’un séjour au Mali pour mieux subvertir tous les attendus du récit de voyage. Dans cette entreprise déconstructiviste, l’auteur utilise la répétition pour tourner en dérision les obsessions de l’« écrivain voyageur », pour dénoncer sa prétention à restituer la complexité de la réalité africaine et pour mettre à mal la vision stéréotypée qu’il voudrait en donner.
In his novel Oreille rouge published in 2005, the french writer Éric Chevillard draws on a trip to Mali to better subvert all the codes of a travel story. In this deconstructivist project, the author uses repetition to deride the obsessions of the “traveller writer”, to denounce his claim to restore the complexity of the African reality and to undermine the stereotyped vision he would like to give.
Keywords: Repetition, novel, travel literature, Africa
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Dans ce numéro :
Alberto Maria Langella| Patrizio Malloggi | Nazarena Fazzari | Victoria Bogushevskaya | Riva Evstifeeva | Jacopo Saturno | Manuela Pavone | Diego Sirico | Renato Rizzoli | Federica Perazzini | Riccardo Gramantieri | Daniela Puolato
This article aims at showing an application of Zellig Sabbettai Harris’ operator grammar to the description of Italian syntax. Zellig S. Harris started to develop his mathematical conception of natural language at the end of the forties starting from a distributionalist approach and culminating in a very personal method of formal investigation of natural language. The first paragraph is an introduction to the article with a theoretical justification of the formal perspective adopted, the second paragraph deals with the inspiring concepts of a harrisian grammar or rather the basic constraints which determine the creation of mathematical structures inside language. In the third paragraph I discuss in detail the concept of operator and the typology of harrisian operators.
Keywords: operator, argument, constraints, information, mathematical structure
In traditional grammars, words are grouped into word classes according to various criteria. Classifications are based on syntactic, morphological and semantic criteria (Glinz 1968; Ehlich 2007, p. 51ff.). Nevertheless, some words are difficult to classify into a category, as consequence of idiosyncratic characteristics, for example ab, seit, von in German. These words can be considered as syntactic “Einzelgänger” (Pasch et al. 2003, p. 584ff.) since they show the syntactic behaviour of prepositions with dative as well as of pre-adverbs. In this paper the aim is to investigate the syntactic behaviour of ab, seit, von as pre-adverbs so that this word class can be included among the canonical word classes (see Duden 2006) on the basis of which the lexical items of the German language can be classified.
Keywords: word class classification, Einzelgänger, preposition, pre-adverb, adverbial complement
On the basis of a spoken corpus we built during field research conducted in Langfang (Hebei), in 2017, through 30 semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample, we verified the role of homophony today in gift exchange in China from a sociolinguistic perspective.
Keywords: gift exchange, homophony, instrumental gifts, expressive gifts, Modern Standard Chinese, liwu jiaohuan 礼物交换
Victoria Bogushevskaya | Formal theory-driven, psycholinguistic data and corpus-driven study confirms the absence of a basic colour term for ORANGE in Modern Standard Mandarin and elaborates the syntaxico-semantic ‘distributional potential’ criterion for basicness
This paper deploys formal, experimental, and corpus-based evidence to demonstrate that, despite being psychologically salient in Modern Standard Mandarin, orange is not yet encoded by a monomorphemic monosyllabic single-character colour term, and the possible candidates do not possess the entire set of the criteria to become ‘basic’. It also suggests an additional analysis of the syntaxico-semantic ‘distributional potential’ criterion, which is a precondition for colour terms’ basicness.
Keywords: basic colour term, colour naming, mnemonic, chì-chéng-huáng-lü-qīng-lán-zi
The article offers a contribution to the knowledge of S. Volchkov’s translation methods. Sergej Volchkov was one of the most prolific translators of the XVIII century related to the Academy of Sciences. In his Vojazhirov leksikon he added Russian definitions to the French-German-Latin part of the Nouveau Dictionnaire du Voyageur. In this article we provide a brief characteristic of Volchkov’s approach in his work on the dictionary and then analyse a selection of lemmas. The selection includes the terms that describe the intellectual qualities of a man, so to compare VL to Volchkov’s most renown translation, Pridvornoj chelovek (from Gracián’s Oráculo manual).
Keywords: translation studies, Volchkov, XVIIIth cent.
The paper describes the acquisition of L2 Russian by Italian volunteers hosting Russian-speaking children for humanitarian purposes. The focus is on an oral comprehension and production task, whose results show that alongside traces of inflectional morphology, production is mostly based on the juxtaposition of topic and comment. Performance is superior in production than comprehension, which is explained in terms of input and motivation. Didactic and acquisitional implications are discussed.
Keywords: L2 Russian, L2 for special purposes, initial SLA, input, utterance structure
Diego Sirico | Students’ Perceptions and Attitudes on the Use of Literature as a Tool for Learning English as a Foreign Language
Considering the lack of studies to support the theories regarding the advantages of integrating literature into language classes, our aim is to investigate the upsides of the use of literature in TEFL through empirical research. After teaching a set of lessons focused on three literary genres, we try to find out whether students’ views towards the use of literature in EFL classes change and which genre pupils perceive as the most beneficial. As for the quantitative research, we make use of a statistical survey through paired t-tests, effect size and ANOVA, while for the qualitative research, we try to uncover what underpins students’ viewpoints. Pupils’ feedback proves that literature can be a motivating and valuable source in developing linguistic and transversal competences.
Keywords: students’ perspective, literature in EFL classes, literary genres, quantitative and qualitative analysis
By drawing upon J.G.A. Pocock’s studies on the Financial Revolution and its controversial reception in contemporary debate, the essay analyses three plays (Shadwell’s The Volunteers, Taverner’s The Female Advocates, and Chetwood’s The Stock-Jobbers), whose main theme is credit and tries to demonstrate that, behind its moralistic condemnation, there are ambiguities and contradictions that replicate the instability of the public debate.
Keywords: comedy, financial revolution, credit, speculation, representation, the return of the repressed
The article focuses on the relationship between clothing and Bildung in the characterization of the protagonist of Dickens’s controversial Bildungsroman Great Expectations. The correlation between dynamics of self-representation and class performance will be analysed in terms of display and adherence to specific standards of rules, values and dress codes that aim to guarantee characters’ acquisition of the elusive status of gentleman they aspire to.
Keywords: Abito, Bildung, Gentiluomo, Great Expectations, Parvenu
In 1960s American writer William Burroughs used a literary composition technique which he called ‘cut-up’. That method consisted in destructuring several literary sources, and reassembling them to form new texts with similar or new meanings. The ‘cut-up’ has some similarities with the concept of bionian transformation, which describes the change produced during the analytic situation that transforms a patient’s and the analyst’s previous mental condition into a new psychic condition.
Keywords: Wilfred R. Bion, William S. Burroughs, Cut-up, Funzione alfa, Trasformazioni
Dans cette contribution, l’étude de la variation syntaxique, observée dans différents types de texte, et l’intérêt pour la variation stylistique s’entrecroisent dans une dimension de contact juridico-littéraire. L’alternance présence/absence du pronom personnel sujet dans des textes remontant au moyen français est analysée dans une perspective quantitative, en tant que phénomène évolutif et stratégie narrative possible. Une attention particulière est réservée à la première personne.
Keywords: Middle French, subject personal pronouns, legal field, literary field
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Dans ce numéro :
Maurizia Calusio | Valentina Noseda| Elda Garetto e Sara Mazzucchelli | Ornella Discacciati | Adriano Dell’Asta | Giuseppe Ghini | Sergio Rapetti
Elda Garetto e Sara Mazzucchelli | Le prime edizioni italiane di Solženicyn nei documenti degli archivi editoriali
The essay presents the results of a research carried out at Mondadori, Saggiatore and Einaudi archives on the first editions of Solženicyn’s novels during the 60-ies. The analysis of the correspondences amongst Italian publishers, literary critics, representatives of literary agencies and translators aims at illustrating an emblematic case study about the dissemination of the Soviet dissident literature in Italy.
Keywords: Solzhenitsyn, Italian publishing houses, archives, translation studies
The paper retraces the debate, in the periodicals of the Italian Left, between the poets Franco Fortini and Giovanni Giudici, following the publication of One day in the life of Ivan Denisovič and Matryona’s House, and in which the Slavist Vittorio Strada took part. This lively dialogue with three voices, very different from each other although all with a Marxist imprint, is undoubtedly the most remarkable outcome of the reading of Aleksandr Solženicyn in Italy, when he was still considered a socialist and a Soviet author.
Keywords: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Franco Fortini, Giovanni Giudici, Vittorio Strada, reception studies, One day in the life of Ivan Denisovič
The article contextualizes the publication of the story by A. Solzhenitsyn The House of Matrëna focusing on affinities and differences with the works of the so-called “village prose”. After reconstructing the evolution of the “peasant prose” as a specific phenomenon that emerged in the second half of the 1950s, in the article are identified the reasons that prevent Solženicyn’s story from being included in the derevenshchiki works.
Keywords: Solzhenitsyn, Thaw’s Literature, Village prose, Literary controversies, Socialist Realism
The publication of The Gulag Archipelago, despite its clearly political nature, made it possible to overcome a reductively political dimension regarding totalitarianism. The case of France was particularly significant in this sense also thanks to the interpretation of C. Lefort: once the logic of propaganda had been overcome and Solzhenitsyn’s work had been returned to literature, the essence of ideology was rediscovered as a form of thought that first and foremost denied the human factor.
Keywords: Solzhenitsyn, Lefort, totalitarianism, ideology, literature
The essay deals with the influence of the Russian writer Solzhenitsyn on the novelist and painter Michael O’Brien. The influence is to be traced above all in the prophetic mission of the writer, which is to be in service to the truth. Secondly the relation between the two authors is analysed through the quotations from Solzhenitsyn in the essayistic and literary work by Michael O’Brien. That analysis is focused on the constant presence of Cancer Ward within The father’s tale, where the characters and the stories told by Solzhenitsyn become constant element of comparison between the two.
Keywords: Michael D. O’Brien, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Solzhenitsyn’s legacy
The essay describes Solzhenitsyn’s journey through his searing debut novel in 1962, accounting horrific events of war, imprisonment and illness, which matured him as a person and a writer. This led him to discover his people and culture, and to devote his life and work to them, even after his expulsion and during his exile. The essay follows these developments with particular regard to the “truthful word”, which Solzhenitsyn tried to abide to in his literary work and life. He also proposed this principle upon his return to Russia in 1994 to aid the moral healing of the “new Russia” that had gone through the disaster of the Soviet era. The whole story is recalled by an Italian translator who has translated many of his works over the last forty years.
Keywords: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, literary translation, gulag literature
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In this Issue:
Francesco Rognoni| Marco Canani and Valentina Varinelli | Kelvin Everest | Will Bowers | Carla Pomarè | Marco Canani | Alberto Bentoglio | Anna Anselmo | Antonella Braida | Lilla Maria Crisafulli |Michael Rossington
Marco Canani and Valentina Varinelli | Introduction Books, Ballets, and Puppets: The Shelleys’ Milanese Experience
Kelvin Everest (University of Liverpool) | “Newly Unfrozen Senses and Imagination”: Shelley’s Translation of the Symposium and His Development as a Writer in Italy
Shelley’s major effort during his first months in Italy in 1818 was a rapid and brilliant translation of Plato’s Symposium. A translation of that particular work, with its overt and central celebration of homosexuality, was, in an English context, a daring and potentially dangerous undertaking at that time. Shelley’s work on the translation had two highly significant effects. Firstly it brought him up against the limits of freedom in personal conduct and intellectual experiment, given the legal and cultural realities of his native social world. Thereafter, Shelley’s behaviour undergoes a tempered maturation which becomes steadily more noticeable through the four years of his Italian exile. Secondly, the Platonic text exposed Shelley to a sophisticated dialogic and dramatic form which makes an immediate and transformative impact on his major poems of the Italian period. The translation of the Symposium thus plays a pivotal role in the development of Shelley’s mature style, opening the way to his emergence as a major poet.
Keywords: Percy Bysshe Shelley, Symposium, translation, love, drama
Shelley read Schlegel’s lectures Über dramatische Kunst und Literatur on his journey to Italy in 1818, and they provided both a spur and a foil to his dramatic thought, and specifically to his ideas on Greek drama. By placing Shelley’s reading of Schlegel at his crossing of the Alps and his time in Milan, we can reconsider his labour in the spring and summer of 1818, a strangely unproductive time for the poet, which only produced a few lyrics, some scenes for the incomplete play Tasso, Mazenghi, and the translation of Euripides’ Cyclops, but which also contained what Kelvin Everest has called a “period of sustained immersion in Greek” that laid the foundation for Prometheus Unbound and the “Discourse on the Manners of the Ancient Greeks”.
Keywords: Percy Bysshe Shelley, Schlegel, translation, drama, Euripides
Carla Pomarè (Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale) | Notes on the Shelleys’ North-Western Passage to Italy
This paper deals with the Shelleys’ first physical impact with Italy, focussing on their experience of the borders they crossed when entering the peninsula through Mont Cenis. Their mostly negative reaction to the Kingdom of Sardinia, which in the course of the century would lead the process of Italian unification, invites reflection on how the reality of border controls and territorial fragmentation interacted with Romantic idealized notions of the Italian state, which as yet had no actual political existence.
Keywords: Shelley, Sabaudian states, borders, Simonde de Sismondi, Mont Cenis
Marco Canani (Università degli Studi di Milano) | Percy Bysshe Shelley, within “the Veins” of “Fair Milan”. A Map of the Poet’s Contacts and Places in April 1818
This article adopts a historical and biographical perspective in order to investigate Percy Bysshe Shelley’s experience of Milan in April 1818. To this end, I trace the Shelleys’ arrival in the city and focus on the places they visited, their contacts, and the encounters they made so as to reconstruct the poet’s “Milanese circle”. Subsequently, I focus on “Ode to Naples” and Hellas and argue that Shelley’s references to the medieval and early modern history of the city should be seen as transhistorical allusions to the political contingency of the Lombardo-Venetian capital after the Hapsburg restoration.
Keywords: Percy Bysshe Shelley, Mary Shelley, Anglo-Italian Studies, British Romanticism, Risorgimento
Valentina Varinelli (Newcastle University)| Return to Paradise: Lake Como in the Works of Mary Shelley
This article deals with Mary Shelley’s imaginary and actual revisiting of Lake Como in her writings following her return to England from Italy in 1823. First the Shelleys’ weekend escape to Como in April 1818 is retraced through their contemporary accounts in their journals and letters. I then look at the ways in which recollections of this visit are incorporated into Mary Shelley’s fictional and non-fictional works, and I compare them to the narratives of her subsequent two visits to Lake Como.
Keywords: Mary Shelley, Lake Como, Frankenstein, Rambles in Germany and Italy, Italian language
The article describes the theatrical life and the shows performed in Milan in 1818. In the first decades of the nineteenth century, Milan was the centre of Italian musical and theatrical life. When Percy and Mary Shelley resided in the city (April 1818) they went to the Teatro alla Scala, the most important theatre in Milan, to attend operas and ballets. They also visited the Gerolamo theatre, a stage dedicated to puppet shows, much appreciated by the Milanese public.
Keywords: spettacolo, Milano, teatro, danza, melodramma
Anna Anselmo (Università degli Studi di Milano) | “In the evening, go to the Theatre of the Marionetti”. Claire Clairmont, the Shelleys, and Gerolamo de la Crina
The Shelley party not only went to La Scala, but also enjoyed a performance at Milan’s only puppet theatre, Teatro Fiando. This article provides the title of this puppet show and offers evidence of the play-text, one version of which is found in the archives of the world-famous Milan-based puppeteers, the Colla family. Furthermore, the article speculates as to the Shelley party’s peculiar and considerably specific interest in puppet shows, which is read as a sign of potential awareness of the political import of and critique implicit in them, and especially in the history of the puppet they saw on stage, Gerolamo, as well as evidence of a sustained interest in movement, gesture, and the body.
Keywords: Claire Clairmont, Shelley, puppetry, puppet theatre, Teatro Fiando
Antonella Braida (Université de Lorraine) | Mary Shelley in Italy: Reading Dante and the Creation of an Anglo-Italian Identity
This article analyses Mary Shelley’s textual and critical approach to Dante. It focuses on her sources in Mme de Staël’s, J.C.L. Simonde de Sismondi’s, August Schlegel’s and Henry Francis Cary’s critical readings of Dante. By analysing Mary Shelley’s use of Dante in Rambles, it will be shown that Mary Shelley became a mediator and introduced contemporary Italian political readings of his work and anticipated the Victorian interest in Dante’s Vita Nuova.
Keywords: Mary Shelley, Rambles in Germany and Italy, Dante, orality, Italian language learning
Lilla Maria Crisafulli (Università di Bologna) | Poetry and Metonymy: Percy Bysshe Shelley’s Poetical Revolution
In this essay I would like to argue that, while in Italy, Percy Bysshe Shelley not only reached his poetic maturity, but also expanded his aesthetic theory in such a way that it might constitute a sort of bridge system, able to reconcile Shelley’s empiricism with his idealism, together with his political and poetic goals. I believe that the aim of this theory, which can be described as holistic, was to fill the gap between art and society in an era of mercantilist ruthlessness and philosophical pessimism.
Keywords: Percy Bysshe Shelley, metonymy, aesthetics, poetic language
Michael Rossington (Newcastle University) | Some Lifetime Editions of Shelley Owned by Richard Monckton Milnes
Richard Monckton Milnes is known to students of English Romanticism mainly as editor of Life, Letters, and Literary Remains, of John Keats, 2 vols (London: Edward Moxon, 1858). This article addresses Milnes’ interest in Percy Bysshe Shelley with reference to three lifetime editions of the poet that he owned. Two are now in the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge, the third in Princeton University Library. All contained between their covers Shelley’s autograph and were displayed at meetings of the Philobiblon Society in the 1850s and 1860s.
Keywords: Percy Bysshe Shelley, Richard Monckton Milnes, bibliography, history of the book, manuscripts
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In this Issue:
Sonia Bailini | Cristiano Furiassi | Maurizia Calusio | Silvia Gilardoni | Elena Bulygina | Tat’jana Tripol’skaja | Anna Krasnikova | Valentina Noseda | Natalja Stoyanova | Sarah Bigi | Nazarena Fazzari | Chiara Piccinini | Claudia Alborghetti | Laura Anelli | Gloria Colombo | Piet van de Craen
Sonia Bailini (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore – Milano) | L’umorismo nella traduzione in spagnolo de Il gioco delle tre carte di Marco Malvaldi
The aim of this paper is to observe how the humorous effect has been translated in the Spanish version of the novel Il gioco delle tre carte (2008) by Marco Malvaldi. The article is organised in three parts: in the first one, the theoretical framework for the translation of humour is outlined, in the second one the types of humour that characterize Malvaldi’s texts are illustrated and in the third one the translation techniques used to maintain the humorous effect of the original text are analysed.
Keywords: Humour translation, Italian-Spanish translation, Marco Malvaldi
Cristiano Furiassi (Università degli Studi di Torino) | “Drink wine, not labels”: A lexicologist’s insight into ‘Super Tuscans’
Following an overview of Super Tuscan wines, this study aims at providing a definition of the pseudo-Anglicism ‘Super Tuscan’. In addition, by resorting to lexicographic and corpus data, the frequency of ‘Super Tuscan’ is measured, its spelling variants are traced and the date of first attestation in both Italian and English is determined. Finally, this article considers whether the term ‘Super Tuscan’ might have turned, via de-terminologization, into a word also known and used by non-connoisseurs.
Keywords: corpora, dictionaries, false Anglicisms, ‘Super Tuscan’, wine terminology
Elena Bulygina – Tat’jana Tripol’skaja (Novosibirskij Gosudarstvennyj Pedagogičeskij Universitet)| Толковый словарь как манипулятивный текст
The purpose of the article is to study the Russian explanatory dictionaries of the twentieth cen- tury as a mechanism for reflecting and forming a picture of the world, ideologically verified and demanded by the country’s political power. Reflection of the political realities of the Soviet era, axiological accents, the hard border between “their” and “alien” – this is an incomplete list of tasks, the solution of which was assigned to dictionaries. Distortion of information is carried out in the following ways; 1) the concealment of individual facts; 2) the regrouping of informa- tion in order of importance, violating the logic and history of language development; 3) silence of some facts and the nomination of others; 4) repeated repetitions of ideological clichés; 5) fragmentation, that is, the representation of a fragment taken out of context that distorts the content of the whole.
Keywords: lexicography, manipulation, ideological component, evaluation semantics
Anna Krasnikova (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)| La manipolazione nell’editoria sovietica: il caso di Il’ja Sel’vinskij
The paper categorizes the most common forms of manipulation in Soviet publishing and presents a new material: the biography and the works of Ilya Selvinsky, a poet who systematically modified his already published texts, the fact that greatly and negatively influenced his literary destiny.
Keywords: manipulation in Soviet publishing, Ilya Selvinsky, Soviet literature, editors and editing, rewriting
Valentina Noseda (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | Processi manipolativi nella Russia post-sovietica: verso la creazione di una nuova immagine del nemico
Like in the past, the image of the enemy is used in today’s Russia to justify some government behaviour and manipulate citizens, obtaining their consent. This also occurs thanks to the role of a strong and persuasive leader such as the current President of the Russian Federation. In this work some of his speeches are analysed considering the following manipulative processes: presupposition violation, emotional language, metaphors and different types of fallacies. The analysis will allow us to define the features of a new image of the enemy which has emerged in post-soviet Russia.
Keywords: manipulation, propaganda, image of the enemy, fallacies, speech analysis
Nataliya Stoyanova (Università degli Studi di Milano) | La manipolazione nascosta nei segnali discorsivi ведь e же usati come attivatori di presupposizione
In this paper, we first of all clarify what is meant by manipulation from the point of view of linguistic theory, both in the Russian and in the Western traditions. Then we present some linguistic mechanisms that can convey manipulation, paying a particular attention to presupposition. Later we consider different presuppositional typologies and definitions, highlighting the function of the presupposition triggers. Finally, two Russian discourse markers, ведь and же, are analyzed through the National Russian Language Corpus (NKRJa), and a clear distinction between them is drawn, concerning their ability to convey the hidden manipulation.
Keywords: discourse markers, presupposition trigger, manipulation, Russian language, corpus analysis
Sarah Bigi (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | Parola corrotta e cura della parola: c’è scampo dalla dinamica manipolatoria?
Recently, frequent inappropriate uses of language in public discourse have been observed that remind of what the literature has often called ‘manipulation strategies’. Thus, scholars have started again di- scussing about what fosters the success of manipulation. This paper originates from the question about the possibility of identifying manipulation in the ‘here and now’ of interaction, and not only after its negative consequences have taken place. After a brief discussion of the literature on manipulation, the paper discusses the possibility of putting in place preventive and defensive strategies against manipula- tive intentions and uses of language.
Keywords: strategie manipolatorie, analisi del discorso, deliberazione
Nazarena Fazzari (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | La censura in Cina e il modello del Genitore Premuroso: analisi di un corpus
This paper analyzes the documents issued by Sarft (State Administration of Radio, Film and Television) on the management of content and language in the media in the Hu Jintao Era, in order to verify which family model of Chinese government is proposed according to Lakoff theory. We argue that the image proposed is the one of the Nurturant Father.
Keywords: Lakoff, censorship in China, political discourse, Nurturant Father, corpus linguistics
Chiara Piccinini (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | Le domande orientate e retoriche in cinese: strumento persuasivo o manipolatorio?
Rhetorical questions (fănwènjù 反问句) in Chinese language are used in communicative contexts to emphasize a sentence and convince an interlocutor of the speaker’s point of view.
Li and Thompson (1984) e Liu Yuehua et al. (2001), among other linguists, distinguish between yes/ no questions and rhetorical questions: the first are sentences occurring in a negative interrogative form (不是……吗? bú shì... ma? “isn’t it true that…?”) that underlie an utterance based on the common point of view of interlocutors, or that starts either from common knowledge or from an evidence; rhetorical questions, on the other way, are formed by interrogative pronouns and modal particles, such as 呢 ne 啊 a, occurring at the end of the utterance (i.e.: 他怎么知道呢? tā zěnme zhīdao ne? “How does he know that?”) and underlying an opposite semantic value to that expressed by interrogative pronouns, that emphasizes that value.
These interrogative sentences, both yes/no questions and rhetorical ones, are widely employed as rhetorical means of persuasion. In my contribution I would like to concentrate on the observation of some of these sentences as they occur in two corpora: one of them contains conversations registered in a class of Chinese language teaching to Italian learners and the second recorded in Taiwan, containing radio conversations on a subject of common interest (health, sports and curious facts).
I will determine if the questions observed in the two corpora show a manipulative use of the language.
Keywords: rhetorical questions, Chinese language, conversation analysis
Claudia Alborghetti (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)| Rewriting Italian social issues in English translation: Renée Reggiani and her impact on children’s literature in the 1960s
Translators of children’s literature often resort to manipulative strategies to meet the standards of children’s publishing in the receiving culture. This paper analyses the rewriting of two of Renée Reggiani’s works that address living conditions in the south of Italy during the 1960s. It argues that her image as a writer who broached topics considered taboo for a young audience has been softened in translation that omits sections of the target texts.
Keywords: children’s literature, translation, Renée Reggiani, descriptive translation studies
Laura Anelli (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | Umorismo tabù, traduzione audiovisiva e manipolazione testuale: quale testo per il pubblico italiano?
The present article focuses on textual manipulation, especially ideological manipulation, detectable in the translation of taboo humour present in some audiovisual texts to make such texts more acceptable for the receiving audience. Through a descriptive approach, three American sitcoms have been analysed – namely Friends, Will & Grace and How I Met Your Mother – in order to identify cases of ideological manipulation in the translation of the taboo humour therein contained.
Keywords: audiovisual translation, dubbing, manipulation, ideology, taboo humour
Gloria Colombo (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | “Das Stück könnte auch ‘Sprechfolterung’ heißen”. La manipolazione linguistica nel Kaspar di Peter Handke e gli albori del teatro postdrammatico
Peter Handke’s Kaspar continues the Austrian reflection on the crisis of language, which finds an emblematic expression in Hugo von Hofmannsthal’s Der Brief des Lord Chandos, but from a new point of view: The crisis of language is presented not so much as a mere consequence, but as a main cause of the crisis of the individual. The article aims at highlighting the strong connection between Kaspar – defined by Handke as an example of “linguistic torture” – and the development of the postdramatic German speaking theatre.
Keywords: Peter Handke, Kaspar, Postdramatic Theatre, Language Torture
Silvia Gilardoni (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | Gestione del discorso e mediazione dei saperi in classe CLIL
In this paper we consider the role of the teacher in the mediation and transmission of knowledge in a foreign language in CLIL context (Content and Language Integrated Learning), analysing the teacher cognition regarding classroom discourse management and teaching communication. The research is based on the analysis of teachers’ meta-didactic reflections collected through a questionnaire about self-observation of classroom discourse, administered to teachers involved in CLIL teaching at high schools in Italy. The discussion of the survey results allowed, first of all, highlighting the recurring elements in the teacher’s awareness of the use of discourse and teaching strategies in CLIL classroom communication. Starting from the teachers’ reflections, we were then able to identify some relevant issues in the perspective of teacher training and action research within the framework of CLIL innovation in the Italian school system.
Keywords: Content and Language Integrated Learning, teacher cognition, classroom discourse
Piet van de Craen (Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)) | CLIL and educational change. What CLIL teaches us about (language) learning
In Europe at all levels of education, especially in primary and early secondary education, the success of CLIL has been undeniable. It is argued that CLIL is such a powerful learning tool because implicit learning lies at the centre of its learning approach. Surprisingly enough, not too many linguists and educationalists have made this clear. This contribution examines implicit learning and considers its role in the CLIL approach. It is shown how implicit learning explains CLIL learning success and why it is important for scholars and practitioners to be aware of this.
Keywords: Language Learning, CLIL, Implicit learning
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In this Issue:
Antonella Luporini | Davide Astori | Luisa Villa | Alain Rabatel | Joseph Davis | Pier Francesco Fumagalli | Annalisa Federici
Antonella Luporini (Università degli Studi di Bologna) | Corpus-assisted Systemic Socio-Semantic Stylistics: Exploring ‘white’ and ‘red’ in Jean Rhys’ Wide Sargasso Sea
This contribution presents a corpus-assisted analysis of Wide Sargasso Sea, a postcolonial prequel to Jane Eyre. The study is part of a research project on the role of corpus linguistics in Hasan’s Systemic Socio-Semantic Stylistics (Hasan 1989). Combining quantitative findings and qualitative considerations, I focus on the Appraisal patterns (Martin – White 2005) involving white and red in Rhys’ text and examine their role in ‘symbolically articulating’ part of its deepest meaning (‘theme’).
Keywords: Corpus stylistics; Systemic Socio-Semantic Stylistics; Wide Sargasso Sea, Appraisal; white/red, other-ness.
Davide Astori (Università degli Studi di Parma) | Viaggi eterodossi fra esilio e fuga (alla ricerca di una patria inesistente) La provocazione esperantista di Teodoro Ŝvarc
Tivadar Soros, father of the more famous George, was the author of two autobiographical novels stemming from the dramatic experience of the war. Starting from the presentation of the two texts, this contribution illustrates and investigates his research – induced by the forced exile from his native land – for a new “virtual” homeland of universal peace and tolerance, inextricably linked to the Esperanto ideal of a common language for the whole mankind and to the reasons that led him to use it as a literary tool.
Keywords: Tivadar Soros, exile, war, name, esperanto.
Luisa Villa (Università degli Studi di Genova) | Mrs Felix Lorraine and Lady Caroline Lamb: Byronic Lore in Vivian Grey, Part I
Like many of his contemporaries, the young Disraeli was a Byromaniac, and his relationship with John Murray provided him with private information regarding the charismatic poet and those who had been acquainted with him. This essay focuses on the largely unexplored connection between the fictional Mrs Felix Lorraine and Lady Caroline Lamb in Vivian Grey, Part I. While highlighting a number of ‘Carolinish’ attributes and echoes, it tries to account for the relevance of Mrs Felix in the novel.
Keywords: Benjamin Disraeli, Lady Caroline Lamb, Vivian Grey; Byromania, roman à clef
Alain Rabatel, CNRS (Université Lumière Lyon 2, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon) | Prophétie, fonction prophétique et témoignage prophétique
Ce texte examine l’hypothèse d’une fonction prophétique – spirituelle ou temporelle –, définie par ses fonctions d’annonce et de mise en garde ancrées dans une vérité, annonçant comme certaine, en dépit de son caractère inouï ou de sa forme obscure, cryptée, la survenue imminente (ou déjà amorcée) d’un évènement qui fait sens, non seulement parce qu’il est extraordinaire, mais encore parce qu’il pose d’emblée la question de l’action en vue de la survie individuelle et collective. En première analyse, la prophétie est différente du témoignage par ses procédures de certification, la nature immanente ou historique de la vérité. Cependant ces différences ne gagnent rien à être durcies, sous l’angle des actes de discours ainsi que du caractère d’obligation qui s’impose au prophète comme au témoin et à la communauté à laquelle ils s’adressent. Les rapprochements sont encore plus patents lorsque les évènements rapportés sont inouïs. L’article expose ensuite la difficulté de faire entendre des témoignages prophétiques relatifs à l’univers concentrationnaire en contrastant deux tentatives différentes de surmonter la contradiction. Si Primo Levi se voit contraint de crypter poétiquement certains témoignages, Geneviève de Gaulle Anthonioz, partage son témoignage par une démarche empathique qui reconstruit le cheminement de sa compréhension du phénomène concentrationnaire, dans l’espoir que cette ré-expérienciation imaginaire permettra aux destinataires de répondre à l’appel des témoins.
Keywords : Prophecy, prophetic function, prophetic witness, diviner, witness
A semiotic, discourse-based linguistic hypothesis that bypasses the syntactic category subject and proposes instead contrasting meanings for the pronouns lui and egli provides empirical support for the critical interpretation of the novel Il Gattopardo as being anti-teleological. The hypothesis, which applies to large body of twentieth-century Italian literature, is that egli but not lui bears a linguistic meaning that ties its relevance to a verb. This linguistic hypothesis reveals a significant difference in Tomasi di Lampedusa’s portrayals of the novel’s two characters Don Fabrizio and Don Calogero: one as a character defined by who he is, the other as a character defined by what he does.
Keywords: linguistics, Gattopardo, Lampedusa, pronoun, egli, lui
Pier Francesco Fumagalli (Veneranda Biblioteca Ambrosiana)| The Arabic manuscripts in the Ambrosiana Library: A treasure for the arts, philosophy, sciences and dialogue between civilizations
The article describes the revival of humanism in Milan during the Renaissance and at the Ambrosiana Library since the beginning of the XVII century, focusing on the new fundamental perspective and programme for the Oriental Studies and in particular on the collection of Arabic and Persian manuscripts of the Ambrosiana Library.
Keywords: Ambrosiana, Oriental studies, Arabic manuscripts, Persian manuscripts, Intercultural dialogue
Annalisa Federici (Università degli Studi della Tuscia) | “I must not settle into a figure”: French Portraits of Virginia Woolf in the Shadow of Proust and Joyce
This essay analyses two significant and often interrelated aspects of Virginia Woolf’s reception in France throughout the 1920s and 1930s: its being essentially mediated by the connections that Bloomsbury maintained with Paris, and the fact that it was overshadowed by the fame of Proust and Joyce, who occupied pride of place on the French intellectual scene. Such comparison significantly contributed to the delineation of Woolf’s public image abroad and seems to justify the author’s unease about the circulation of a stereotypical portrait of herself, which would hinder her personal investigation into the fictional form.
Keywords: Virginia Woolf, reception, France, Marcel Proust, James Joyce
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In questo numero:
Leonardo Buonomo | Raffaella Faggionato | Paola A. Nardi | Paola Spinozzi e Marisa Verna | Michela Gardini | Paola Spinozzi | Marisa Verna | Elena Raponi | Julie Crohas Commans | Anthony Ballas | Linda Levitt
Leonardo Buonomo | Beyond the Travelogue: Catharine Maria Sedgwick’s
Plea for Italy in Letters from Abroad to Kindred at Home
Catharine Maria Sedgwick (1789-1867) was arguably the most highly regarded American woman writer of the first half of the nineteenth century. Though deeply invested in the creation of a distinctively national literature, she was also remarkably cosmopolitan in her tastes and interests as testified by her 1841 travelogue Letters from Abroad to Kindred at Home. This article examines the ways in which Sedgwick, while taking her readers on a traditional guided tour of celebrated cities, also tried to make them aware of the effects of foreign occupation and despotism on contemporary Italy.
Keywords: Catharine Maria Sedgwick, Letters from Abroad to Kindred at Home, nineteenthcentury American travel writing, Italian art, Risorgimento
Raffaella Faggionato | Руссоизм и герметические науки в образах некоторых второстепенных героев Л. Н. Толстого
The paper explores the features of some minor characters taken from the works of Leo Tolstoy, all belonging to the lower classes. In previous studies these characters have been interpreted in the light of an ideal harmony inherited from Rousseau’s theories, however the genesis of such a figure as Platon Karataev, in War and Peace, reveals something different. These characters, who often catalyse the protagonists’ “epiphany”, are built on a Rousseauian philosophical background, merged with other lines of thought, namely those coming from the Hermetic tradition.
Keywords: Tolstojan minor characters, Tolstoj and the Hermetic tradition, Tolstoj and Rousseau’s theories, Genesis of Platon Karataev, The philosophical background of Tolstoj
The essay reads Morrison’s Paradise as a celebration of the birth of the United States, reinterpreting some of the founding myths of the United States from a different perspective, an African-American one. Morrison shows the dangers of a mythological construction of the past based on a single domineering perspective that silences possible parallel narrations. At the same time, he reveals the limits and the violence of a reading of the history of the New World in terms of Paradise or, according to the ideology of the Manifest Destiny, of the optimistic interpretation of the ‘conquest of the West’ and the triumphant founding mythology of the Pilgrims Fathers.
Keywords: Toni Morrison, Paradise, African-American Literature, American History, American Founding Myths
Edifici d’autore. Estetiche e ideologie nella narrazione dei monumenti
a cura di Paola Spinozzi e Marisa Verna
Michela Gardini | Il Tempio Malatestiano tra il sacro e il profano: lo sguardo di Joséphin Péladan e Henry de Montherlant
Malatesta Temple emerges from the works of Joséphin Péladan (1858-1915) and of Henry de Montherlant (1896-1972) as a mental place where the authors project their aesthetic ideal without quitting ideological over-determinations. The temple imagined and told, but never seen in reality, constitutes a kind of palimpsest prone to new writings and interpretations. In the image of Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, who ordered its construction, it attracts Péladan and Montherlant exactly because they are both charmed by this character as a figure of excess and transgression against the mediocrity of their contemporaries. In their eyes Malatesta seems to summarize in himself the contrasts as well as the Temple contains, by harmonizing, the opposites: the sacred and the profane, paganism and Christianity, the human and the divine. Place of memory, it constitutes a cultural hybrid, emblem of that Renaissance artistic ideal by which both the French writers are inspired. But if Péladan’s celebration of the Renaissance Art finds in the Temple an ideal where each part is in harmony with the whole, Montherlant’s exaltation, instead, attains the aesthetics of fragmentation and of the incomplete by finding in the image of the Temple destroyed the most extreme ending, echo of those tragical bombardments which, between December 1943 and June 1944, hit the building. So this one rises to a polysemic object forming narrations which find in the knowledge combination (literature, philosophy, politics, history, art) its own essence.
Keywords: Malatesta Temple, Joséphin Péladan, Henry de Montherlant, cultural hybrid
Conceived by Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta in 1447, designed by Leon Battista Alberti, decorated by Agostino di Duccio, painted by Piero della Francesca, and left unfinished, the Tempio Malatestiano in Rimini exhibits distinctive marks of multiple intellects which have inspired tales, historical novels, poems, and essays. Writing (about) the Tempio between the second half to the nineteenth century and the present age, Jacob Burckhardt, John Addington Symonds, Charles Yriarte, E.M. Forster, Pasquale Villari, Edward Hutton, Ezra Pound, Aldous Huxley, and Adrian Stokes have generated a network of ekphrases across Europe. Diverse ekphrastic narratives reveal that the architectural building is a conceptual site which generates other conceptual sites, an incubator of aesthetic and ideological interpretations from different historical and cultural contexts.
The verbal renditions of the Tempio show how an architectural and conceptual building can host multiple aesthetic and ideological appropriations which allow us to define its historical role and reveal its characteristics as an intercultural and transnational catalyst.
Keywords: Tempio Malatestiano, ekphrasis, appropriation, aesthetics, British travellers
Marisa Verna | Sigismondo Malatesta, un criminale neoplatonico. Péladan lettore mistico
del Palazzo Malatestiano
This paper aims to tackle the ambiguity of Péladan’s interpretation of the Malatesta Temple of Rimini, the prestige of which is related for him to the faith in the Absolute of Art. In effect, in Példan’s novel Le Vice Suprême, Sigismondo becomes a hero for both his criminal reputation and his artistic prestige. Furthermore, in his theoretical work L’Art Idéaliste et Mystique, Péladan states that Sigismondo was devoted to the perfect religion of Beauty and was, therefore, pure. His Neoplatonic faith, as it is expressed in the artistic masterpieces of the Temple, makes him a priest of the only true Religion of Arts. This apparently linear stance veils in fact an ambivalent ideological attitude, that Péladan shares with the Decadent generation as a whole. Although conservative he was, the French writer was not aware of the consequences of some of his aesthetical statements, that inspired the far-right political movements of the early Twentieth Century’s Europe. The intrinsic ambivalence of ideological interpretation of monuments is, therefore, exemplarily represented by Péladan’s work.
Keywords: Sigismondo Malatesta, Tempio Malatestiano, Joséphin Péladan
Elena Raponi | Monumenti, nazionalismo e letteratura nella Germania bismarckiana
e guglielmina. Theodor Fontane e Felix Dahn
The paper analyzes the literary treatment of the monuments of Bismarckian and Wilhelmine Germany. This was a period in which the enthusiasm for the birth of the Second Reich and the need for moral as well as political unification of the nation led to a proliferation of monuments celebrating significant events and figures in German history. In particular, we examine the novel Effi Briest by Theodor Fontane (1819-1898) and the prose and poetry of Felix Dahn (1834- 1912), in which two types of monuments that were commonly found at the time are portrayed: on the one hand the official monuments of the Hohenzollerns, the expression of a dynastic and pro-government patriotism, and on the other hand the monuments created through spontaneous initiatives, like the many Bismarck Towers or the statues of Arminius, which reflected a radical nationalist patriotism that was ‘anti-establishment’. The paper examines the function and meaning of the two types of monument in the works of Dahn and Fontane and the differences in the attitudes of the two writers, without neglecting cases of ‘missing’ monuments such as the aborted project of a monument to Heinrich Heine.
Keywords: monuments and literature, literature and nationalism, Bismarckian and Wilhelmine Germany, Theodor Fontane, Felix Dahn
Le temple de Borobudur et le torii de Nagasaki sont parmi les innombrables édifices et monuments, célèbres, mythiques ou anonymes, qui illustrent la cartographie romanesque de Philippe Forest. De L’Enfant éternel (1997) à Crue (2016), un inlassable narrateur, père d’une enfant perdue, arpente le monde afin, une fois au pied du mur, d’accéder autrement à la réalité et à l’impossible. L’article recense et définit ces architectures narratives et l’épreuve, au sens multiple du terme, qui en résulte.
The Borobudur Temple and the torii of Nagasaki are among the numerous monuments and buildings that illustrate the cartography of Philippe Forest’s novels. From L’Enfant éternel (1997) to Crue (2016), a tireless narrator, father of a lost child, strides across the world, in order to reach the reality and the impossible by other means, once his back is against the wall. The article makes an inventory and defines the proof, in multiple senses of the term, resulting from this narrative architecture.
Keywords: Philippe Forest, narration, architecture, cartography, proof
This paper employs Mario Gooden’s diagnoses of African American museums, Henri Lefebvre’s critique of monumental architecture, and Henry Louis Gates Jr.’s notion of Signifyin(g) toward the examination of American rap artist Lupe Fiasco’s re-narrativization of architectural space, specifically the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee where Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated in 1968. The Lorraine Motel has since been transformed into the Civil Rights Museum, and poses an architectural and aesthetic problem according to Gooden, who is critical of the spatial strategies implemented at the site, using the museum as an example of what he refers to as the “problem with African American museums,” calling for a re-imagination of monumental spaces paying tribute to the Civil Rights movement and black identity. Fiasco’s lyrical constructions in his songs Brave Heart and Audubon Ballroom, refer generally to architectural space, and particularly to the Lorraine Motel, emphasizing the materiality of the signifier while modulating the meaning of these spaces through metaphor and chiasmus, which Gates Jr. identifies as the unique proclivity belonging to black vernacular. This paper concludes that Fiasco’s lyrical narrative of the Lorraine Motel demonstrates the potential of Signifyin(g) to modulate perception of the static architecture of the site which keeps black identity mired to the past.
Keywords: African American, Henri Lefebvre, Henry Louis Gates Jr., Hip Hop, Mario Gooden
This essay is intended as a conversation: the voices of those who created the Vietnam Veterans Memorial have a story to tell. If language creates reality rather than representing it, then this is an etymological tracing of the Memorial. The Vietnam Veterans Memorial remains a discursive site, where visitors leave remembrances and tell their stories. The many voices and many stories reflect the polysemic nature of the Memorial, as the desire to be inclusive is essential to its design.
Keywords: Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Maya Lin, Jan Scruggs, commemoration
It is possible to download the entire journal as PDF file by clicking here, as ePub file by clicking here, and also as mobi file (Kindle format) by clicking here.
In this issue:
Nataliya Stoyanova | Miriam Ravetto | Ettore Marchetti | Afsaneh Pourmazaheri | Giulio Segato | Gloria Colombo | Renata Zanin | Claudio Macagno | Giuseppe Ghini | Мауриция Калузио | Галина Жиличева
Nataliya Stoyanoya | Struttura del discorso negli apprendenti italofoni di russo: analisi testuale comparata russo-italiano
This article presents the results of a discourse analysis of Russian-learning texts by italophones. The discourse structure was examined from the point of view of the preferences for discourse relations on various acquisitional stages and from the point of view of hierarchization. Furthermore the grade of repartition of situations and the grade of the discourse structures complexity were analysed, allowing us thus to characterize the textuality of the considered acquisitional varieties compared to the native Russian and Italian.
Keywords: discourse analysis, Russian language, compared textuality, acquisitional varieties, linguospecific patterns
Miriam Ravetto | «Come si dice?» / «Wie heisst das?» – Strategie di ricerca lessicale in visite guidate con italiano e tedesco L2
The paper investigates word search sequences in a corpus of guided tours, in which tourist guides speak Italian and German as foreign languages. Italian and German are, on the contrary, the native languages of the group of tourists. Using the approach of Conversation Analysis, the study describes and classifies the word search dynamics and strategies, through which tourist guides try to find the problematic word.
Keywords: word search, Conversation Analysis, touristic communication, interactional linguistics.
Ettore Marchetti | “Boia imperialisti, spie di regime e corrotti buffoni”. La lingua dei comunicati delle brigate rosse durante il Sequestro Moro
On March 16th 1978, Italy goes through one of the worst pages in its history, when the Brigate Rosse (Red Brigades), the armed party, kidnap the politician Aldo Moro and brutally kill five bodyguards; the BR thus begin their swan song. During the fifty-five days of imprisonment of the president of the DC (Christian Democratic Party), the terrorists elaborate and issue nine statements in which they illustrate the motivations and strategies of both the kidnapping and the armed struggle. It is definitely one of the events that has most impressed the public opinion since the second postwar, and that a large bibliography keeps examining. However, one aspect has always remained less explored than others: the linguistic one. Through a syntactic, morphological, and lexical analysis this article gives an account of the salient features of the statements, including the rhetorical devices and the communication strategies used by the authors. The linguistic observation highlights the complexity of the nine texts, and the opportunity to consider them as a coherent corpus of writings that share common traits which, although they do not constitute a technical language, still define a peculiar way to communicate of a specific terrorist group. The present work is inspired by a general enthusiasm of the recent Italian studies for the Seventies and for the so called ‘Years of Lead’, and is meant to suggest a particular attention to the role of language in the study of terrorism and of political violence of that period.
Keywords: Red Brigades, statements, semantic fields, expressivity, lexical and syntactic complexity
Ce travail de recherche s’interroge sur la représentation discursive des référents exotiques filtrée par un regard stéréotypé dans les récits de trois voyageurs français en Orient de la première moitié du XIXe siècle. Les énonciateurs-voyageurs, placés dans un contexte linguistique et culturel asymétrique, tentent de saisir et de transcrire leurs observations sur le terrain étranger en fonction de leur intellect, de leur cognition et de leur expérience. Une série d’éléments marqués par l’altérité viennent modifier la représentation que l’auteur-voyageur donne du référent et de l’univers référentiel auquel il est confronté. C’est à cette façon « réductrice » de voir les référents issus d’un univers différent et à l’intervention de la subjectivité de l’auteur que nous nous intéressons dans cette étude. Nous analysons les effets discursifs produits par l’usage des ressources linguistiques ainsi que par les positionnements énonciatifs des auteurs-voyageurs. Cette approche homogénéisante et généralisante de la perception de l’Autre se fait au travers des moules préconstruits et une démarche subjective dans la culture réceptrice que nous tenterons de voir à l’aide des outils d’analyse langagiers et discursifs dans les récits de voyage de Goupil Fesquet (1844), de Rémy Aucher-Eloy (1843) et de J.M. Tancoigne (1819) en Orient, notamment en Perse.
Keywords: stereotypy, alterity, travel literature, ethnotype, representation
With the exception of No Country for Old Men, the Vietnam War has never appeared openly in Cormac McCarthy’s novels, but it has nevertheless left a deep trace on his early work (Child of God, Suttree, and Blood Meridian). Blood Meridian in particular shows, despite his western setting, an imaginary influenced by the military-political experience of Vietnam. A few scenes in the book in fact read more like a war novel rather than a western, and the connection is even deeper than that. The Vietnam novels typically have some concerns – such as the chaotic descriptions of the battle, the explosion of meaningless violence often perpetrated by friendly fire, and the guerrilla warfare – which are to be found at their best in Blood Meridian. My essay discusses these issues through a comparison with a western movie often associated with the Vietnam War: Sam Peckinpah’s The Wild Bunch.
Keywords: Cormac McCarthy, Blood Meridian, Vietnam War, The Wild Bunch, Western, war novel
Gloria Colombo | Wie wenn sich eine einzige hohe aber starke stimme bilde: lingua e stile nel romanzo das scHLOSS di Franz Kafka
While writing Das Schloß (1922), Kafka not only tried to eliminate the most typical elements of Southern German, Viennese German, Czech and Yiddish in order to draw near to the elegance of Classicism, but also shaped the narrative style on the basis of Biblical Hebrew. The accent placed by the latter on parataxis and repetition led him to create a sort of acoustic hallucination, which – as well as the influence of Biblical Hebrew on the novel – has so far been ignored by Kafka scholars.
Keywords: Franz Kafka, The Castle, Prager Deutsch, Hebrew Bible, acoustic hallucination
Elfriede Gerstl can be truly considered a ‘minor’ Austrian poet who spent a lifelong search for her own literary voice at the margins of the turmoil of the literary avant-garde in postwar Vienna. Existential insecurity, irony and a superb command of the German language come together with a highly emotional way of speaking. Elfriede Gerstl’s poems and the recordings of her poems can be successfully used in teaching pronunciation and intonation to Italian learners of German.
Keywords: pattern and culture, prosody, idiomatic and prosodic coinage, poetry in language classes
In Darya Dontsova’s detective novels the categories of terrible and tragic do not play a significant role but, on the contrary, are deliberately attenuated through the deployment of a number of different strategies that make it impossible to read these novels “без улыбки на лице” [without a smile on one’s face].
Starting from the fundamental works of Bergson (Le rire), Freud (Der Humor) and Pirandello (L’umorismo) and from a series of theoretical concepts accounting for the workings of humour, this paper analyses the various devices employed by Dontsova, the undisputed “queen of the ironic detective story”, to create comic effects.
Keywords: Darya Dontsova, detective story, humour, irony, Humor Studies.
Giuseppe Ghini | “L’eterna influenza francese” Classici russi per il tramite del francese all’alba del Terzo millennio
he article deals with a bad practice introduced anew in Italian publishing: translations from Russian through intermediate French versions. Three Italian translations – The trial of Brodsky, a Chekhov’s and a Grossman’s short story – are shown to be dependent from French versions, then causes and consequences of their lexical and stylistic detachment from the original text are analyzed, a detachment inescapable in second-hand translations, on principle alien to a philological approach.
Keywords: Second hand translations, The trial of Joseph Brodsky, The story of an unknown man, In the main line of attack
Мауриция Калузио | Василий Гроссман. и первый опыт художественного исследования Гулага (О повести Все течет…)
It is difficult to determine which genre Vasily Grossman’s last work Everything flows (1955-1963) belongs to. In the last decades of the XX century, literary critics noticed how this work completely lacks a plot and a fabula. Some researchers have even refused to call this text a ‘literary work’. In this article, an attempt has been made to show how Grossman, when talking about themes that were still inaccessible for that time (the system of labour camps, Holodomor and so on), created a completely new and audacious way of narrating. Grossman’s apparent contemptuous approach to the rules of narration in Everything flows is actually generated by the need to tell without lies the indescribable and ineffable human journey in the camps. In this article, we analyze the motifs of travel and dream, as well as the figure of preterition, which Grossman uses to express his dissent from the falsity of socialist realism.
Keywords: Vasily Grossman, Everything flows, Gulag literature, Russian literature
Галина Жиличева | “Ясность” и “связность” как смысловые доминанты нарратива В. Гроссмана (“За правое дело”, “Жизнь и судьба”)
This paper deals with the dominant ideas of the narrative structure of Vasily Grossman’s novels. The semantic fields of the concepts of ‘clearness’ (‘yasnost’’) and ‘connectedness’ (‘svyaznost’’) are being analyzed. In Grossman’s dilogy, these concepts are being regarded as the signs of the plot situation of ‘revelation’.
This article suggests that the words “yasnyi” (clear, serene, obvious), “prozrachnyi” (transparent), “svet” (light), “svyaz’” (bond, link, connection), “nit’” (thread) and their cognates can be described as overdetermined signs due to their frequent usage in Grossman’s dilogy. Such signs are related to the basic metaphors of European literature (the correlation of world, text and fabric; metaphors of vision) and, therefore, they are the crucial parts of Grossman’s dialogue with previous literature tradition. The usage of the concepts of ‘clearness’ and ‘connectedness’ emphasizes the sophisticated interaction between the two parts of the communicative structure of the novels – between the discourse of ‘revelation’ and the discourse of ‘agitation’. Moreover, those concepts can also bear a metanarrative significance. Grossman’s narrative manifests the urge of the ultimate ‘connectedness’ and ‘clearness’ while showing the ‘invisible’ threads and ‘clear’ truth.
Keywords: Grossman, narrative, repetition, discourse strategy
In questo numero:
Luisa Camaiora | Federico Bellini | Laila Paracchini | Carla Vergaro | Michela Murano | Sibilla Cantarini e Gaston Gross | Marco Budassi | Rebecca Schar | Nazarena Fazzari
L’articolo analizza la presenza dell’aspetto economico nel Romeo and Juliet di Shakespeare, esaminando alcune tematiche quali il denaro e la ricchezza, la proprietà e le procedure legali, i contratti e l’eredità, il mercantilismo e la navigazione, il significato e la rilevanza dell’oro. L’aspetto monetario è ritenuto contribuire alla creazione di un’intelaiatura di stime esplicite o implicite che riguardano il concetto di valore e sono funzionali al mantenimento di una consapevolezza valutativa.
Keywords: Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, money, economic motifs
Federico Bellini | Charity, Melancholy, and the Protestant Ethic in Herman Melville’s Bartleby and Cock-A-Doodle-Doo!
Relying on Max Weber’s and Colin Campbell’s description of the Spirit of Capitalism, I plan to interpret the narrators of Melville’s Bartleby and Cock-A-Doodle-Doo! as embodying two complementary aspects of the same ethical attitude informing such spirit. This is characterized by the oscillation between sentimentalism and individualism, charity and egoism, idealism and pragmatism, which Melville detected in the everyman of his time. In particular, I will focus on the references to the theological debate on free will and to the theme of melancholy as pivotal elements to comprehend Melville’s insight. Finally, I will show how Merrymusk and Bartleby, the two other main characters of the stories, may be seen as representing Melville’s attempt to question the American society of his time.
Keywords: Herman Melville, Bartleby, melancholy, charity, protestant ethic
Il presente lavoro offre una mappatura relativa allo sviluppo degli studi di Internet Linguistics in Russia negli ultimi quindici anni. Grazie all’analisi di molti materiali esistenti, il contributo descrive le principali linee di ricerca verso cui, in ambito russo, si è orientata l’indagine sul rapporto tra la diffusione di Internet e il manifestarsi di nuove forme d’uso della lingua.
Keywords: Russian language of Internet, Internet linguistics in Russia, Russian lexicon of the Internet, Russian net-discourse, virtual genres in Runet
Nelle analisi del Modell of Christian Charity, il sermone che John Winthrop pronunciò nel 1630, molto è stato detto relativamente al contesto storico-culturale alla base della produzione del testo. L’analisi proposta in questo saggio si concentra fondamentalmente sul testo, partendo dal presupposto che la sua essenza possa essere analizzata investigando ciò che, in prospettiva azionale, il testo ‘fa’ in uno specifico dominio del discorso. L’approccio utilizzato è dunque pragmatico e basato sulla teoria degli atti linguistici. Esso prende in considerazione il contesto, sia nella dimensione oggettiva che cognitiva, ed esplora in che modo il testo del Modell svolga la sua funzione in un determinato ambito discorsivo. L’analisi considera tre livelli illocutori: il livello degli atti linguistici, la combinazione degli atti linguistici in unità superiori che chiamiamo funzioni testuali, e la combinazione di queste funzioni testuali in un determinato profilo funzionale. Particolare attenzione viene data al livello intermedio delle funzioni testuali poiché esse, in particolare, mettono in luce le caratteristiche distintive del testo quale esemplare di un particolare genere. L’analisi è finalizzata a mostrare il modo in cui Winthrop crea i motivi per una azione collettiva attraverso l’uso magistrale del profilo funzionale del genere sermone, combinato con l’uso, altrettanto magistrale, della polisemia lessicale. Il risultato è un testo in cui tout se tient, e che è unanimemente considerato uno dei testi fondativi della letteratura e della cultura americana.
Keywords: Winthrop, sermon, illocutionary levels, text functions
Objets culturels, les dictionnaires sont le produit de la période qui les fait naìtre : « Alors mème qu’ils semblent destinés à fixer les savoirs, ils ne sont en vérité, à l’échelle du temps, que des ins- tantanés » (Pruvost, 2006). Lenregistrement de mots nouveaux et l’évolution de leur traitement dans les dictionnaires généraux représentent donc le reflet de l’émergence de nouvelles réalités et de leurs changements au sein d’une société. Dans notre communication, nous nous proposons de retracer la présence évidente et en filigrane des mots écologie et environnement, ainsi que de leurs dérivés et des composés avec éco-, dans cinq éditions du Petit Robert (1ère éd. 1967) qui s’étalent sur plus de 40 ans. Le relevé des entrées au niveau de la macrostructure sera suivi de l’analyse de l’évolution de quelques articles (éco-, écolo, écologie and environnement) ; enfin, nous évaluerons l’affirmation progressive de la marque de domaine écol.
Keywords: monolingual lexicography, French lexicography (20th century), ecology, environment, derivational field
Sibilla Cantarini e Gaston Gross | Forme di espressione della causalità nel confronto francese-tedesco
Il presente contributo è uno studio tipologico delle forme di espressione della causa in francese e tedesco. Si descrivono molteplici mezzi linguistici che attualizzano la causalità. In modo particolare, sono prese in esame la causa a effetto e la causa esplicativa, di cui si descrivono caratteristiche sintattiche e semantiche. La disamina riguarda diversi tipi di meccanismi alle base della causalità, nella fattispecie la metafora, l’inferenza e l’enunciazione. Si osserva quindi che la causalità non è riconducibile nelle lingue considerate ad una definizione unica.
Keywords: cause to effect, explicative cause, metaphor, inference, utterance
Cifra caratteristica dell’italiano neo-standard sono tratti linguistici una volta appartenenti al sub-standard, come il ‘che’ polivalente. In questo lavoro mi sono occupato di valutare se sia possibile o meno rintracciare il ‘che’ polivalente in un corpus annotato solamente per part of speech. Dai dati emerge come le sotto-tipologie di ‘che’ polivalente di tipo ‘giustappositivo’ siano estraibili dal corpus tramite query, mentre le sotto-tipologie di tipo ‘restrittivo’ non lo siano.
Keywords: corpus linguistics, POS-tagging, polyvalent use of che, neo-standard Italian, syntax
Based on the debate on children’s ability to produce argumentative discourse in different educational settings, this paper provides further support for the fact that small children are able to support their opinions with arguments. In particular, the paper makes a case in point on children’s appeal to definitional loci, when supporting their standpoints. The analysis of their reasoning’s implicit components shows how children apply different definitional arguments.
Keywords: adult-children interaction, argumentation, definition, small children’s speech
Nazarena Fazzari | Tra stabilità sociale e pornografia: giochi di parole sovversivi e armonizzazione su Internet nell’era Hu Jintao
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the policies adopted by the government of Hu Jintao (2002-2012) about the Internet. Such laws have been partially translated into Italian. Their aim alternates between the fight against pornography and the protection of social stability. The ‘digital resistance’ attempts to evade censorship through homophony, e.g. through the Baidu ten mythical creatures, the most famous being Caonima.
Keywords: Internet in China, digital resistance, harmonious society, caonima, censorship
In questo numero:
Elisa Bolchi | Paola Nardi | Erica Maggioni | Elisa Ramazzina | Laura Bignotti | Davide Vago | Federica Locatelli | Vittoria Prencipe | Franco Lonati | Daniela Fargione | Francesco Toniolo | Caterina Allais | Costanza Cucchi | Sonia Piotti | Nataly Botero
Si presenta qui un’intensa pagina di prosa letteraria tratta da La Montagne de la dernière chance, nella quale lo scrittore André Bucher descrive un rude paesaggio alpino, i cui elementi naturali (rocce, crepacci, acque e piante) sembrano animarsi, emanare grida allarmate, assumere compor¬tamenti non dissimili da quelli dell’uomo. Il vitalismo che anima la terra, anche nel senso delle urla che essa emette nei confronti della specie che oggi più che mai sembra minacciarla – quella umana – ci pare un’introduzione, sintetica e unitaria, ai temi che sono affrontati in questo nu¬mero monografico della Rivista, che porta il titolo Ecocritica ed ecodiscorso. Nuove reciprocità tra umanità e Pianeta. Questo testo ci è stato gentilmente concesso dall’Autore, che ringraziamo sentitamente.
Prendendo spunto da un passo del Sistema periodico in cui Levi definisce Dio un “maestro di polimerizzazioni” che non ama le sostanze “troppo incorruttibili”, questo saggio discute il tema della responsabilità ambientale e della trascendenza in relazione all’ecologia. In particolare, ci si sofferma sul pensiero di H. Jonas e sul legame che connette l’idea di responsabilità ambientale in Das Prinzip Verantwortung (1979) al pensiero dell’impotenza di Dio in Der Gottesbegriff nach Auschwitz (1987). Il saggio si conclude considerando le implicazioni di questi concetti per le en¬vironmental humanities, in connessione con i discorsi sulla giustizia ambientale (la slow violence di R. Nixon) e le nuove ontologie degli iper-oggetti (la object-oriented-ontology di Morton). Idea fondamentale è che la letteratura, specie quando ci parla della materialità e del nostro rapporto con il non umano, è una voce importante nell’orizzonte immanente/trascendente del nostro essere ambientale.
Keywords: Environmental humanities, ethics, ecology, transcendence, Hans Jonas, Primo Levi
The three main settings of McEwan’s Solar, a novel described as “the first great global-warming novel” (Walsh 2010) are significant: from London, to the Artic Pole, up to the desert in New Mexico, these places are all described through the interior monologue of the anti-hero Michael Beard, a character allegorical of humanity’s greed for selfish over-consumption. As Beard moves in the real environment only through the non-places of supermodernity (Augé), the paper ana¬lyses the descriptions of settings to underline how McEwan uses them to write about climate- change in a new “novelistic” way (McEwan).
Keywords: Ian McEwan, ecocriticism, Solar, places, environment
Paola A. Nardi, “Direction? … There was no direction. The prairie stretched to the end of the world”. American Land and the Pioneer Woman
Black Soil, a novel written by an Irish pioneer woman, tells about her arrival and settlement in the Iowa prairies in the second half of the 19th century. The goal of my essay is to investigate the strategies the immigrant woman Nell Connor adopts to survive on the American frontier.
Keywords: American West, the frontier, the Pioneer Woman, space, place, ecocriticism
Erica Maggioni, “Earth! have they gone into you?”
An Ecocritical Reading of the Relationship Between Man, Nature and War in Isaac Rosenberg’s Poems