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In questo numero:
Leonardo Buonomo | Raffaella Faggionato | Paola A. Nardi | Paola Spinozzi e Marisa Verna | Michela Gardini | Paola Spinozzi | Marisa Verna | Elena Raponi | Julie Crohas Commans | Anthony Ballas | Linda Levitt
Leonardo Buonomo | Beyond the Travelogue: Catharine Maria Sedgwick’s
Plea for Italy in Letters from Abroad to Kindred at Home
Catharine Maria Sedgwick (1789-1867) was arguably the most highly regarded American woman writer of the first half of the nineteenth century. Though deeply invested in the creation of a distinctively national literature, she was also remarkably cosmopolitan in her tastes and interests as testified by her 1841 travelogue Letters from Abroad to Kindred at Home. This article examines the ways in which Sedgwick, while taking her readers on a traditional guided tour of celebrated cities, also tried to make them aware of the effects of foreign occupation and despotism on contemporary Italy.
Keywords: Catharine Maria Sedgwick, Letters from Abroad to Kindred at Home, nineteenthcentury American travel writing, Italian art, Risorgimento
Raffaella Faggionato | Руссоизм и герметические науки в образах некоторых второстепенных героев Л. Н. Толстого
The paper explores the features of some minor characters taken from the works of Leo Tolstoy, all belonging to the lower classes. In previous studies these characters have been interpreted in the light of an ideal harmony inherited from Rousseau’s theories, however the genesis of such a figure as Platon Karataev, in War and Peace, reveals something different. These characters, who often catalyse the protagonists’ “epiphany”, are built on a Rousseauian philosophical background, merged with other lines of thought, namely those coming from the Hermetic tradition.
Keywords: Tolstojan minor characters, Tolstoj and the Hermetic tradition, Tolstoj and Rousseau’s theories, Genesis of Platon Karataev, The philosophical background of Tolstoj
The essay reads Morrison’s Paradise as a celebration of the birth of the United States, reinterpreting some of the founding myths of the United States from a different perspective, an African-American one. Morrison shows the dangers of a mythological construction of the past based on a single domineering perspective that silences possible parallel narrations. At the same time, he reveals the limits and the violence of a reading of the history of the New World in terms of Paradise or, according to the ideology of the Manifest Destiny, of the optimistic interpretation of the ‘conquest of the West’ and the triumphant founding mythology of the Pilgrims Fathers.
Keywords: Toni Morrison, Paradise, African-American Literature, American History, American Founding Myths
Edifici d’autore. Estetiche e ideologie nella narrazione dei monumenti
a cura di Paola Spinozzi e Marisa Verna
Michela Gardini | Il Tempio Malatestiano tra il sacro e il profano: lo sguardo di Joséphin Péladan e Henry de Montherlant
Malatesta Temple emerges from the works of Joséphin Péladan (1858-1915) and of Henry de Montherlant (1896-1972) as a mental place where the authors project their aesthetic ideal without quitting ideological over-determinations. The temple imagined and told, but never seen in reality, constitutes a kind of palimpsest prone to new writings and interpretations. In the image of Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, who ordered its construction, it attracts Péladan and Montherlant exactly because they are both charmed by this character as a figure of excess and transgression against the mediocrity of their contemporaries. In their eyes Malatesta seems to summarize in himself the contrasts as well as the Temple contains, by harmonizing, the opposites: the sacred and the profane, paganism and Christianity, the human and the divine. Place of memory, it constitutes a cultural hybrid, emblem of that Renaissance artistic ideal by which both the French writers are inspired. But if Péladan’s celebration of the Renaissance Art finds in the Temple an ideal where each part is in harmony with the whole, Montherlant’s exaltation, instead, attains the aesthetics of fragmentation and of the incomplete by finding in the image of the Temple destroyed the most extreme ending, echo of those tragical bombardments which, between December 1943 and June 1944, hit the building. So this one rises to a polysemic object forming narrations which find in the knowledge combination (literature, philosophy, politics, history, art) its own essence.
Keywords: Malatesta Temple, Joséphin Péladan, Henry de Montherlant, cultural hybrid
Conceived by Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta in 1447, designed by Leon Battista Alberti, decorated by Agostino di Duccio, painted by Piero della Francesca, and left unfinished, the Tempio Malatestiano in Rimini exhibits distinctive marks of multiple intellects which have inspired tales, historical novels, poems, and essays. Writing (about) the Tempio between the second half to the nineteenth century and the present age, Jacob Burckhardt, John Addington Symonds, Charles Yriarte, E.M. Forster, Pasquale Villari, Edward Hutton, Ezra Pound, Aldous Huxley, and Adrian Stokes have generated a network of ekphrases across Europe. Diverse ekphrastic narratives reveal that the architectural building is a conceptual site which generates other conceptual sites, an incubator of aesthetic and ideological interpretations from different historical and cultural contexts.
The verbal renditions of the Tempio show how an architectural and conceptual building can host multiple aesthetic and ideological appropriations which allow us to define its historical role and reveal its characteristics as an intercultural and transnational catalyst.
Keywords: Tempio Malatestiano, ekphrasis, appropriation, aesthetics, British travellers
Marisa Verna | Sigismondo Malatesta, un criminale neoplatonico. Péladan lettore mistico
del Palazzo Malatestiano
This paper aims to tackle the ambiguity of Péladan’s interpretation of the Malatesta Temple of Rimini, the prestige of which is related for him to the faith in the Absolute of Art. In effect, in Példan’s novel Le Vice Suprême, Sigismondo becomes a hero for both his criminal reputation and his artistic prestige. Furthermore, in his theoretical work L’Art Idéaliste et Mystique, Péladan states that Sigismondo was devoted to the perfect religion of Beauty and was, therefore, pure. His Neoplatonic faith, as it is expressed in the artistic masterpieces of the Temple, makes him a priest of the only true Religion of Arts. This apparently linear stance veils in fact an ambivalent ideological attitude, that Péladan shares with the Decadent generation as a whole. Although conservative he was, the French writer was not aware of the consequences of some of his aesthetical statements, that inspired the far-right political movements of the early Twentieth Century’s Europe. The intrinsic ambivalence of ideological interpretation of monuments is, therefore, exemplarily represented by Péladan’s work.
Keywords: Sigismondo Malatesta, Tempio Malatestiano, Joséphin Péladan
Elena Raponi | Monumenti, nazionalismo e letteratura nella Germania bismarckiana
e guglielmina. Theodor Fontane e Felix Dahn
The paper analyzes the literary treatment of the monuments of Bismarckian and Wilhelmine Germany. This was a period in which the enthusiasm for the birth of the Second Reich and the need for moral as well as political unification of the nation led to a proliferation of monuments celebrating significant events and figures in German history. In particular, we examine the novel Effi Briest by Theodor Fontane (1819-1898) and the prose and poetry of Felix Dahn (1834- 1912), in which two types of monuments that were commonly found at the time are portrayed: on the one hand the official monuments of the Hohenzollerns, the expression of a dynastic and pro-government patriotism, and on the other hand the monuments created through spontaneous initiatives, like the many Bismarck Towers or the statues of Arminius, which reflected a radical nationalist patriotism that was ‘anti-establishment’. The paper examines the function and meaning of the two types of monument in the works of Dahn and Fontane and the differences in the attitudes of the two writers, without neglecting cases of ‘missing’ monuments such as the aborted project of a monument to Heinrich Heine.
Keywords: monuments and literature, literature and nationalism, Bismarckian and Wilhelmine Germany, Theodor Fontane, Felix Dahn
Le temple de Borobudur et le torii de Nagasaki sont parmi les innombrables édifices et monuments, célèbres, mythiques ou anonymes, qui illustrent la cartographie romanesque de Philippe Forest. De L’Enfant éternel (1997) à Crue (2016), un inlassable narrateur, père d’une enfant perdue, arpente le monde afin, une fois au pied du mur, d’accéder autrement à la réalité et à l’impossible. L’article recense et définit ces architectures narratives et l’épreuve, au sens multiple du terme, qui en résulte.
The Borobudur Temple and the torii of Nagasaki are among the numerous monuments and buildings that illustrate the cartography of Philippe Forest’s novels. From L’Enfant éternel (1997) to Crue (2016), a tireless narrator, father of a lost child, strides across the world, in order to reach the reality and the impossible by other means, once his back is against the wall. The article makes an inventory and defines the proof, in multiple senses of the term, resulting from this narrative architecture.
Keywords: Philippe Forest, narration, architecture, cartography, proof
This paper employs Mario Gooden’s diagnoses of African American museums, Henri Lefebvre’s critique of monumental architecture, and Henry Louis Gates Jr.’s notion of Signifyin(g) toward the examination of American rap artist Lupe Fiasco’s re-narrativization of architectural space, specifically the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee where Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated in 1968. The Lorraine Motel has since been transformed into the Civil Rights Museum, and poses an architectural and aesthetic problem according to Gooden, who is critical of the spatial strategies implemented at the site, using the museum as an example of what he refers to as the “problem with African American museums,” calling for a re-imagination of monumental spaces paying tribute to the Civil Rights movement and black identity. Fiasco’s lyrical constructions in his songs Brave Heart and Audubon Ballroom, refer generally to architectural space, and particularly to the Lorraine Motel, emphasizing the materiality of the signifier while modulating the meaning of these spaces through metaphor and chiasmus, which Gates Jr. identifies as the unique proclivity belonging to black vernacular. This paper concludes that Fiasco’s lyrical narrative of the Lorraine Motel demonstrates the potential of Signifyin(g) to modulate perception of the static architecture of the site which keeps black identity mired to the past.
Keywords: African American, Henri Lefebvre, Henry Louis Gates Jr., Hip Hop, Mario Gooden
This essay is intended as a conversation: the voices of those who created the Vietnam Veterans Memorial have a story to tell. If language creates reality rather than representing it, then this is an etymological tracing of the Memorial. The Vietnam Veterans Memorial remains a discursive site, where visitors leave remembrances and tell their stories. The many voices and many stories reflect the polysemic nature of the Memorial, as the desire to be inclusive is essential to its design.
Keywords: Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Maya Lin, Jan Scruggs, commemoration
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In questo numero:
Veronka Szőke | Alida Silletti | Monica Barsi | Sara Cigada e Caterina Garaffoni | Bernard Haidacher | Giancarmine Bongo | Elena Ballarin e Paolo Nitti |Francesca Saltamacchia e Andrea Rocci
The purpose of this essay is to analyse the economic imagery in Hamlet as it occurs in the play mainly in the form of similitudes, puns and metaphors. My point is that the economic images reproduce (and reaffirm) the central tenets of a mercantilist discourse along with its ambivalent notion of the market, which wavers between hegemonic, nationalistic attitudes and cosmopolitan and universal ones. This ambiguity plays an important role in underlining Hamlet’s ethical and epistemological deadlock in the role of revenger by tracing it, rather than to the eclipse of the late medieval order (according to Carl Scmitt’s famous thesis), to the contradictions of a modernity in progress to which the mercantilist discourse belongs.
Keywords: Mercantilism, money, goods exchange, Puritanism, Christian Humanism
Within Catherine Gore’s vast literary corpus there is an uncharacteristic novel titled Adventures in Borneo: A Tale of a Shipwreck (1849), in which the author experiments with exotic settings and adventures, a fictional subgenre in which she is not entirely comfortable. In the period of its publication, the British press was reporting and commenting on the controversial events involving Sir James Brooke, the White Rajah of Sarawak, and his anti-piracy campaign in the waters of the Malay Archipelago. In this article I try to investigate Gore’s take on such a delicate topic as British conduct in remote foreign lands, vis-à-vis alien cultures; I also refer to one of her unpublished letters, as well as to Brooke’s journal published in 1846 – most likely her primary source for the socio-cultural information on the Borneo population deployed in the novel. This article also seeks to contribute to the critical-literary debate over Catherine Gore providing a starting point for a more thorough study of her attitude towards British colonialism.
Keywords: Catherine Gore, James Brooke, Adventures in Borneo, exoticism
The reflection on human existence described by Rainer Maria Rilke in the arduous verses of the Duineser Elegien, one of the highest expressions of 20th century poetry, has been the object of a long, rigorous and illuminating meditation by Romano Guardini. To remember the great Italian-German Catholic intellectual, theologian and philosopher on the 50th anniversary of his death (1968-2018), this contribution anticipates some of the contents developed in the collection of Guardini’s writings on Rilke edited by the author, which will be published in 2019 by Morcelliana. Three are the main elements highlighted here: the academic and didactic reasons that led Guardini to reflect on Rilkes’ work; the essential outline of his hermeneutics; finally, the main reasons that caused Guardini to take a very critical stand towards Rilkes’ poetry, which represents a painful and dramatic reflection on the annihilation of the modern man.
Keywords: Romano Guardini, Rainer Maria Rilke, Elegie Duinesi
Since the inauguration of his career in 1963, with Le procès-verbal, 2008 Nobel Laureate, J.-M. Gustave Le Clézio has published over 40 works. His writing is characterized by an original style, in which the language aims to reproduce the complexity of reality. He writes about landscapes and traditions, nature (the richness of its fauna and flora), modern society – through various narrative strategies – collage techniques, lexical choices, figures of speech – that we will explore in this article.
Keywords: writing style, narrative strategies, collage techniques, lexical choices, figures of speech
Yahis Martari | Come scrivono i politici italiani su Facebook Appunti per un’analisi linguistica comparativa
This article aims at proposing a linguistic analysis of 358 posts written on Facebook (FB) by six Italian politicians. More specifically, the corpus consists of six official political Italian pages, which can be divided into two samples (three pages per sample), corresponding to two different observation moments: 1. December 2012 – January 2013 (88 post); 2. May – August 2017 (270 post). While the focus of attention is on posts, comments have also been taken into account in this survey (10 for each post). The two samples here analyzed are fairly close in time, but, given the accelerated speed of web evolution, some (micro-)diachronic remarks can be made in order to show how the Italian politicians’ communication on FB has been changed from 2013 to 2017.
In sections 1 and 2 the issue concerning the language of politics on the web (with special reference to social networks) has been introduced and the corpus has been presented in detail; in sections 3 and 4, the language and the stylistic characteristics of the two samples have been analyzed; finally, in sections 5 and 6, some concluding remarks are given, especially focusing the most recent sample.
Keywords: political communication, linguistic analysis, Facebook, writing
Valentina Noseda | La corpus revolution russa e il corpus parallelo italiano-russo: storia, criteri di compilazione e usi
This paper aims at presenting the Italian-Russian parallel corpus, expanded in 2015 and now available within the Russian National Corpus (Nacional’nyj Korpus Russkogo Jazyka). In particular, the paper describes the history, the design criteria, the phases of construction and the potential offered by this tool for language and literary studies in the field of Italian Slavistics.
Keywords: Corpus linguistics, parallel corpora, corpus design, contrastive linguistics, applied linguistics
Giulio Segato | The Home of the Brave. Sezione monografica a cura di G. Segato Hard, Stoic, Isolate, and a Killer. Appunti sul carattere americano
Questa sezione riprende alcuni degli interventi presentati al seminario di studi The Home of the Brave, svoltosi presso la sede milanese dell’Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore il 22 novembre 2016, con il contributo dei Dipartimenti di Scienze linguistiche e Letterature Straniere e di Scienze Politiche, cui vanno i miei più sentiti ringraziamenti. L’obiettivo del seminario era celebrare i duecentoquarant’anni dalla Dichiarazione d’Indipendenza degli Stati Uniti d’America (1776). In questa prospettiva, ci sembrò opportuno pensare a un titolo che esprimesse una certa solennità e, allo stesso tempo, alludesse almeno a una ‘qualità strutturale’ del carattere americano. The Home of the Brave – il terzo verso dell’inno nazionale americano, fortunatamente mai cantato – ci pareva un’espressione che centrasse abbastanza bene l’obiettivo.
This paper aims to examine the origin of the hard-boiled hero. I suggest it is possible to find his first arrival in the frontier romance created by James Fenimore Cooper in 1823 with The Pioneer, in which Natty Bumppo makes his first appearance, the real archetype of the hard-boiled detective. Then there is a second important stage: Allan Pinkerton’s narratives drawn from his real experience as a private vigilante. Pinkerton’s detectives were strong men of honor with a clear moral view, so his fictional heroes had the same features. The last influence on the hard-boiled hero is to be found in the dime novels protagonists’ evolution. If at first they were only cowboys, scouts or outlaws, at the end of XIX century they became detectives and the setting of the stories changed: no longer the landscape of the US/Mexico border but the big cities.
Keywords: Hard-boiled hero, detective novel, dime novels, J.F. Cooper, Allan Pinkerton
Starting from some definitions of ‘female heroism’ that highlight it as a problematic concept, this essay focuses on Margaret Fuller’s interest in different meanings and interpretations of the heroic ideal. Her Italian experience enables Fuller to recognize Giuseppe Mazzini as a supreme embodiment of modern heroism, as well as to explore the potential (which had already been taken into consideration in her treatise Woman in the Nineteenth Century) and the limits of a female incarnation of heroism.
Keywords: Female heroism, bravery, righteous violence
This paper aims to examine Carl Sandburg’s unusual trajectory from militant poet and socialist propagandist to standard-bearer for the American values of unity, freedom and progress. If in his first book, Chicago Poems, the author harshly criticized the American lifestyle and the capitalist system, over the years we witness a gradual transformation, which mitigates Sandburg’s controversial positions, until he became an embodiment of the founding ideals of the nation and a symbol of the American Dream.
Keywords: Sandburg, Lincoln, Chicago, America, Socialism
It is possible to download the entire journal as PDF file by clicking here, as ePub file by clicking here, and also as mobi file (Kindle format) by clicking here.
In this Issue:
Veronka Szőke | Alida Silletti | Monica Barsi | Sara Cigada e Caterina Garaffoni | Bernard Haidacher | Giancarmine Bongo | Elena Ballarin e Paolo Nitti |Francesca Saltamacchia e Andrea Rocci
The Norwegian Rune Poem has often been evaluated negatively because of an overall impression of a lack of coherence and cohesion. Analysis of the poem against the background of wisdom tradition has allowed a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in its composition. The article considers the poem in parallel with Sólarljóð and Málsháttakvæði – two poetic works deriving from the same cultural context – and aims to further analise the poem’s structure and illuminate aspects of its imagery.
Keywords: Norwegian Rune Poem, Sólarljóð, Málsháttakvæði, runic lore
Alida Silletti | ‘Aller + infinitif’ et ‘andare a + infinitif’ : effets de sens ‘illustratif’ et ‘risolutivo’
Cette contribution aborde les parcours de grammaticalisation et les effets de sens d’‘aller + infinitif’ et de ‘andare a + infinitif’ en français et en italien contemporains. A partir d’un corpus parallèle de presse, nous montrerons que les effets de sens « illustratif » de la périphrase française et « risolutivo » de la périphrase italienne ne relèvent pas d’une correspondance entre les deux périphrases mais plutôt d’un simple contact entre leurs effets de sens.
The present research deals with the grammaticalization paths and with the semantic values of ‘aller + infinitive’ and of ‘andare a + infinitive’ in contemporary French and Italian. On the basis of a parallel press corpus, our investigation will show that the « illustrative » use of the French structure and the « risolutivo » use of the Italian do not depend on a correspondence between the two periphrases but on a simple case of contact between their semantic values.
Keywords : aller + infinitive; andare a + Infinitive, grammaticalization ; illustrative and risolutivo semantic values, contrastive analysis
The contribution studies the adaptations of the textbooks for the French teaching of Mauger bleu and Mauger rouge in Italian editions at Petrini. The two Maugers are significant in the history of glottodydactics because they attest, from the 1960s to the 1970s, the transition from a grammar of the parts of speech to a grammar of structures. In Italy, we will see the same movement that is here evoked to contextualize the Mauger in the Italian publishing market.
Keywords: Glottodidactics, second language teaching, French teaching, teaching methods
Sara Cigada e Caterina Garaffoni | Teatro sentimentale e propaganda Les Victimes cloîtrées di Jacques-Marie Boutet
L’articolo studia, attraverso l’analisi linguistica del testo, la componente emotiva della pièce teatrale Les Victimes cloîtrées del drammaturgo francese Boutet detto Monvel. L’analisi viene condotta a livello lessicale, discorsivo e retorico, combinando il metodo messo a punto da Christian Plantin con il modello dell’umanista Rodolfo Agricola. Essa consente di far emergere in che modo il carattere sentimentale dell’opera sia strumentalizzato ai fini politici della propaganda, nel contesto della Rivoluzione francese.
We outline the emotive elements in the dramatic work of Boutet (Monvel), Les Victimes cloîtrées. Linguistic and discourse analysis are based both on Christian Plantin’s methodology and on Rodolphus Agricola’s XVth century model. It appears that the sentimental component of the pièce is consistent with the ideological goal of supporting Jacobin politics and discrediting the Church, in the context of the French Revolution.
Keywords: emotive argumentation, manipulation, emotions in discourse analysis, discourse analysis and argumentation, French Revolution
André Martinet (1979) ist der Schöpfer des Terminus ‘Konfix’. In der französischen Sprachwissenschaft war die Verbreitung der Kategorie jedoch schwierig und sie wird dort kaum angewendet. Im Französischen sind diese gebundenen Morpheme meist in die neoklassische Komposition eingebettet. In der aktuellen französischen Forschung wird das Phänomen in das abstrakte Schema der Konstruktions-Morphologie integriert, die jedoch keine Sonderkategorien kennt. In der Germanistik hingegen, sind Konfixe zwischenzeitlich als eigene Kategorie, wenn auch unterschiedlich diskutiert, fixer Bestandteil der Grammatik.
André Martinet (1979) is the originator of the term ‘confix’. However, in Romance linguistics the concept has not enjoyed much popularity. In French, we find a multitude of terms for these bound morphemes, which are typically integrated in the framework of composition. Nowadays, French linguists use the abstract schema of construction morphology, in which there are no specific categories. The German-speaking literature, by contrast, has paid a great deal of attention to the phenomenon.
Keywords: confix(es), research tradition, morphology, word-formation, neoclassical compounding
Giancarmine Bongo | Allgemeine Diskursreferenz in deutschen und italienischen Einleitungen zu wissenschaftlichen Zeitschriftenartikeln
Der Beitrag untersucht ein Korpus von 40 Einleitungen zu wissenschaftlichen Zeitschriftenartikeln (jeweils 20 auf deutscher und auf italienischer Sprache) im Hinblick auf die Relation, die jeder wissenschaftliche Text zum eigenen Forschungshintergrund herzustellen hat. Im Rahmen einer solchen Bezugnahme hebt sich ein spezifisches Phänomen ab, das in Anlehnung an den von Foucault entwickelten Diskursbegriff als ‚allgemeine Diskursreferenz‘ bezeichnet werden könnte. Es handelt sich um die Relation zur Menge des ‚Bereits-Gesagten‘, zur Menge aller effektiven Aussagen, ohne Bezug auf einzelne Werke, Beiträge bzw. Autoren: es handelt sich mit anderen Worten um die Möglichkeit, eine nicht intertextuelle Relation zu einem Universum von Texten herzustellen. Wie und inwiefern kommt eine derartige ‚allgemeine Diskursreferenz in den analysierten Einleitungen zustande? Gibt es kulturbezogene Unterschiede zwischen den deutschen und den italienischen Texten?
This study examines a corpus of 40 Introductions to articles published in scientific specialized journals (20 in German language, 20 in Italian language), with regard to the relation, that each scientific text has to establish with its research background. Within this relation a peculiar dimension emerges, which on the basis of the concept of discourse by Foucault could be defined as ‚General Discourse Reference‘. It is the relation with the research background as the field of the ‘already-said’, of all effective statements, without reference to specific works or authors: it is thus the possibility to establish a not intertextual relation with a universe of texts. How and in what extent is such a ‚General Discourse Reference‘ realized in the analyzed Introductions? Are there cultural differences between German and Italian articles?
Keywords: discourse reference, introductions, scientific articles, German, Italian
Elena Ballarin e Paolo Nitti | I risultati di un’indagine sull’insegnamento e sulla rappresentazione dei colori nell’ambito dell’italiano L2/LS
Il saggio presenta i risultati di una ricerca sui metodi di insegnamento e sulla rappresentazione dei colori in italiano come lingua seconda (L2). L’indagine è stata sottoposta agli insegnanti e l’analisi mostra che pochi insegnanti hanno la consapevolezza della complessità del lessico e dei meccanismi connessi con i testi. La rappresentazione del colore in diverse lingue è contemplata da un numero molto breve di informanti, dando l’idea che la trasmissione del vocabolario nell’insegnamento della L2 sia un mero fatto di traduzione fra le due lingue. Alla luce di questi dati, gli insegnanti dovrebbero essere coinvolti nelle pratiche di apprendimento per comprendere il ruolo del vocabolario e del lessico in una lingua e dei metodi per insegnarli nelle classi di L2.
The essay presents the results of a survey on the teaching methods and the representation of colors in Italian as Second Language (ISL). The survey was administered to the teachers and the analysis shows that few teachers have the awareness of the lexicon complexity and the mechanisms connected to the texts. The representation of colors in different languages is contemplated by a very short number of informants, giving the idea that the transmission of the vocabulary in ISL education is a mere fact of translation between the two languages. In the light of these data, teachers should be involved in learning practices in order to understand the role of the vocabulary and the lexicon in a language and the methods for teaching it in ISL classes.
Keywords: colors, vocabulary, L2-LS, ethnolinguistics, psycholinguistics, acquisitional linguistics
Francesca Saltamacchia e Andrea Rocci | Metapragmatica della cortesia nell’Italia del primo Ottocento. La polemica sulla cortesia tra Melchiorre Gioja e Antonio Rosmini: utilitarismo o principio di carità
This article shows an example of explicit argumentation about politeness: the dispute between Melchiorre Gioja and Antonio Rosmini about the chapter Apologia della moda written by Melchiorre Gioja in the Nuovo Galateo (1820). In particular, we examine Rosmini’s Galateo de’letterati (1828) and we focus on arguments that justify Rosmini’s metapragmatics comments and fallacies.
L’articolo presenta un episodio di argomentazione esplicita sulla cortesia: la disputa sorta tra Melchiorre Gioja e Antonio Rosmini circa il capitolo Apologia della moda contenuto nel Nuovo Galateo (1820) di Melchiorre Gioja. Si prendono in esame, in particolare, le giustificazioni argomentative dei commenti metapragmatici, e le fallacie attribuite da Rosmini a Gioja nel Galateo de’letterati (1828).
Keywords: Politeness, argumentation, nineteenth-century, Italy, controversy, fallacy
In questo numero:
Jennifer Valcke, Amanda C. Murphy, Francesca Costa | Joanne Pagèze, David Lasagabaster | Elizabeth Long | Susanna Broggini| Robert Wilkinson, René Gabriëls | Cristina Mariotti | Francesca Helm, Fiona Dalziel
Jennifer Valcke, Amanda C. Murphy, Francesca Costa | Introduction EMI – A Tool for the Internationalisation of Higher Education
Round table moderated by Prof. Simonetta Polenghi, Professor of History of Education, Head of the Department of Education | What are we Changing when we Teach in English? Views from the Schools of Economics, Mathematics and Physics, Engineering and Linguistics
The Round Table was set up to provide a variety of answers to the same question: What are we changing when we teach in English? Representatives from four different disciplinary areas took part, three from Milan – Management, Engineering and Linguistics – and two – Maths and Physics – from Brescia. The issues that were brought up overlap to some extent, but each disciplinary area pointed out something original, indicating areas for future research. The speakers’ contributions have been edited slightly, but some elements of spoken discourse have been preserved for the sake of authenticity.
Francesca Costa | The Introduction of English as an Academic Language in a Faculty of Physics and Mathematics in Italy
The use of English as a medium of instruction at university level has increased dramatically in the last 15 years all over Europe. English-taught programmes are often imposed top-down, and this article presents one of the very few cases in which the process and decision-making have been documented, in terms of a pre-feasibility study conducted through a student questionnaire and interview with the Dean. The research is set within the Italian context of a Faculty of Mathematics and Physics. Results reveal that in general students have a positive attitude towards this implementation, but many adjustments still need to be carried out.
Keywords: EMI, English as an academic language, Mathematics and physics
Joanne Pagèze, David Lasagabaster| Teacher Development for Teaching and Learning in English in a French
Higher Education Context
Discussion of the impact of institutional initiatives on the development of EMI in the French context has been minimal due to the particular way in which EMI has emerged in France. The aim of this paper is to explore the impact of a teacher development initiative set up in 2014 at the University of Bordeaux in order to help disciplinary teachers make the transition to teaching their discipline in English. The objective here is to explore how local context is impacting this shift in teaching and learning practices through EMI.
Keywords: teacher development / EMI / France / Internationalisation
This article maps the evolution of lecturer training courses at the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia since 2011 to the present to meet the growth of English taught degree programmes being offered. It illustrates a three-pronged approach developed to deliver methodological and language instruction to Italian lecturers through three distinct “Lecturing in English” modules, outlining the rationale behind each element. It also considers the new role of the teacher trainer in training university teachers.
Keywords: English Medium Instruction, teacher education, ongoing professional development, English-taught programmes, UNIMORE.
Susanna Broggini, Amanda C. Murphy | Metadiscourse in EMI lectures: Reflections on a Small Corpus of Spoken Academic Discourse
This paper describes a qualitative study on the use of metadiscourse in EMI university courses. It adopts Noble’s simplified and restricted classification model of metadiscourse markers, adapted from Ädel, focuses on reflexive language and is applied to academic spoken discourse.
Keywords: Metadiscourse, discourse analysis, academic spoken discourse, corpus-based study, qualitative research
Robert Wilkinson, René Gabriëls | Adapting to EMI in Higher Education: Students’ Perceived Learning Strategies 341Adapting to EMI in Higher Education: Students’ Perceived Learning Strategies
To a varying extent, many universities are changing their language of instruction to English in order to position themselves in the global market of higher education. This change attracts mobile students who wish to undertake studies abroad, but they may have to adjust the way they study. The central question in the study we report here is how students perceive an effect of English-medium instruction on their learning strategies. In an exploratory study, students were interviewed about their learning strategies as a consequence of EMI, about possible inequalities in EMI and how they perceive them. The findings suggest that modification of learning strategies depends on personal agency and the learning context. The interviews reveal three types of linguistic asymmetry at the individual level under EMI. The qualitative data confirm findings of previous studies and suggest new perspectives for quantitative research on learning strategies in EMI and linguistic inequalities.
Keywords: English-medium instruction (EMI), learning strategies, language inequalities, linguistic asymmetry
Francesca Costa, Cristina Mariotti | Students’ Outcomes in English-Medium Instruction: Is there any Difference Related to Discipline?
This paper focuses on the acquisition of content in Economics and Science EMI classes taught by the same lecturers. The control group consists of L1-taught classes (Italian), whereas the experimental group consists of L2-taught classes (English). Students’ marks in two comparable written exams are analysed. Data are complemented with interviews with the lecturers. The results show that in some instances the two groups differ significantly as regards the acquisition of content.
Keywords: ICLHE, content acquisition, content presentation, English-medium instruction, Italian-medium instruction
Francesca Helm, Fiona Dalziel | Beyond the Classroom: the Impact of EMI on a University’s Linguistic Landscape
In this paper we explore the linguistic landscape of an Italian state university. A “Linguistic Landscape” refers to the language visible in public spaces, and to a transdisciplinary approach adopted in language policy studies, often in “arenas of contestation”. The EMI context can be considered such an arena; linguistic landscaping offers an exciting new methodological approach, enabling observation of the changing face of universities in their quest for ever-increasing internationalisation.
Keywords: English-Medium Instruction (EMI), Linguistic Landscape (LL), language policy, internationalisation
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Aesthetics and Ideologies in the Narration of Monuments.
Edited by Paola Spinozzi e Marisa Verna
We propose to devote a thematic section of Issue 2/2018 to expressions of creative writing inspired by monuments. Our aim is to understand how and why diverse re/constructions of their specific genesis, descriptions of architectural features, explanations of symbolism, histories of mentors, sponsors and artists generate over/interpretations in the form of essays, short stories, historical novels and poems. Each article will investigate the ways in which writers, while speculating on and verbally reconstructing a monument, can instil aesthetic and ideological appreciations.
The narration of monuments will be examined with particular reference to:
— polysemantic buildings, rooted in a specific place and historical context, but also open to multiple intercultural elaborations;
— modes of constructing, restructuring or contesting historical identities and cultural memories;
— stimuli for the imagery, through which mythical figures and events are evoked.
We intend to select articles focusing on the narration of monuments in various countries, in order to be able to draw a broad international atlas.
Those who would like to contribute a paper, are invited to send an abstract in English of max 400 words, with 3-5 keywords, no later than November 15, 2017. Abstracts should be sent to Marisa Verna (email@example.com) and Paola Spinozzi (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Authors will be notified about the acceptance of their contribution no later than November 30, 2017.
The deadline for the complete article is March 1, 2018. Articles should be max 50.000 characters long (including spaces) and should follow the journal Stylesheet, which can be downloaded at: www.analisilinguisticaeletteraria.eu
The thematic section will be published in December 2018.
In questo numero:
Luisa Camaiora | Federico Bellini | Laila Paracchini | Carla Vergaro | Michela Murano | Sibilla Cantarini e Gaston Gross | Marco Budassi | Rebecca Schar | Nazarena Fazzari
L’articolo analizza la presenza dell’aspetto economico nel Romeo and Juliet di Shakespeare, esaminando alcune tematiche quali il denaro e la ricchezza, la proprietà e le procedure legali, i contratti e l’eredità, il mercantilismo e la navigazione, il significato e la rilevanza dell’oro. L’aspetto monetario è ritenuto contribuire alla creazione di un’intelaiatura di stime esplicite o implicite che riguardano il concetto di valore e sono funzionali al mantenimento di una consapevolezza valutativa.
Keywords: Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, money, economic motifs
Federico Bellini | Charity, Melancholy, and the Protestant Ethic in Herman Melville’s Bartleby and Cock-A-Doodle-Doo!
Relying on Max Weber’s and Colin Campbell’s description of the Spirit of Capitalism, I plan to interpret the narrators of Melville’s Bartleby and Cock-A-Doodle-Doo! as embodying two complementary aspects of the same ethical attitude informing such spirit. This is characterized by the oscillation between sentimentalism and individualism, charity and egoism, idealism and pragmatism, which Melville detected in the everyman of his time. In particular, I will focus on the references to the theological debate on free will and to the theme of melancholy as pivotal elements to comprehend Melville’s insight. Finally, I will show how Merrymusk and Bartleby, the two other main characters of the stories, may be seen as representing Melville’s attempt to question the American society of his time.
Keywords: Herman Melville, Bartleby, melancholy, charity, protestant ethic
Il presente lavoro offre una mappatura relativa allo sviluppo degli studi di Internet Linguistics in Russia negli ultimi quindici anni. Grazie all’analisi di molti materiali esistenti, il contributo descrive le principali linee di ricerca verso cui, in ambito russo, si è orientata l’indagine sul rapporto tra la diffusione di Internet e il manifestarsi di nuove forme d’uso della lingua.
Keywords: Russian language of Internet, Internet linguistics in Russia, Russian lexicon of the Internet, Russian net-discourse, virtual genres in Runet
Nelle analisi del Modell of Christian Charity, il sermone che John Winthrop pronunciò nel 1630, molto è stato detto relativamente al contesto storico-culturale alla base della produzione del testo. L’analisi proposta in questo saggio si concentra fondamentalmente sul testo, partendo dal presupposto che la sua essenza possa essere analizzata investigando ciò che, in prospettiva azionale, il testo ‘fa’ in uno specifico dominio del discorso. L’approccio utilizzato è dunque pragmatico e basato sulla teoria degli atti linguistici. Esso prende in considerazione il contesto, sia nella dimensione oggettiva che cognitiva, ed esplora in che modo il testo del Modell svolga la sua funzione in un determinato ambito discorsivo. L’analisi considera tre livelli illocutori: il livello degli atti linguistici, la combinazione degli atti linguistici in unità superiori che chiamiamo funzioni testuali, e la combinazione di queste funzioni testuali in un determinato profilo funzionale. Particolare attenzione viene data al livello intermedio delle funzioni testuali poiché esse, in particolare, mettono in luce le caratteristiche distintive del testo quale esemplare di un particolare genere. L’analisi è finalizzata a mostrare il modo in cui Winthrop crea i motivi per una azione collettiva attraverso l’uso magistrale del profilo funzionale del genere sermone, combinato con l’uso, altrettanto magistrale, della polisemia lessicale. Il risultato è un testo in cui tout se tient, e che è unanimemente considerato uno dei testi fondativi della letteratura e della cultura americana.
Keywords: Winthrop, sermon, illocutionary levels, text functions
Objets culturels, les dictionnaires sont le produit de la période qui les fait naìtre : « Alors mème qu’ils semblent destinés à fixer les savoirs, ils ne sont en vérité, à l’échelle du temps, que des ins- tantanés » (Pruvost, 2006). Lenregistrement de mots nouveaux et l’évolution de leur traitement dans les dictionnaires généraux représentent donc le reflet de l’émergence de nouvelles réalités et de leurs changements au sein d’une société. Dans notre communication, nous nous proposons de retracer la présence évidente et en filigrane des mots écologie et environnement, ainsi que de leurs dérivés et des composés avec éco-, dans cinq éditions du Petit Robert (1ère éd. 1967) qui s’étalent sur plus de 40 ans. Le relevé des entrées au niveau de la macrostructure sera suivi de l’analyse de l’évolution de quelques articles (éco-, écolo, écologie and environnement) ; enfin, nous évaluerons l’affirmation progressive de la marque de domaine écol.
Keywords: monolingual lexicography, French lexicography (20th century), ecology, environment, derivational field
Sibilla Cantarini e Gaston Gross | Forme di espressione della causalità nel confronto francese-tedesco
Il presente contributo è uno studio tipologico delle forme di espressione della causa in francese e tedesco. Si descrivono molteplici mezzi linguistici che attualizzano la causalità. In modo particolare, sono prese in esame la causa a effetto e la causa esplicativa, di cui si descrivono caratteristiche sintattiche e semantiche. La disamina riguarda diversi tipi di meccanismi alle base della causalità, nella fattispecie la metafora, l’inferenza e l’enunciazione. Si osserva quindi che la causalità non è riconducibile nelle lingue considerate ad una definizione unica.
Keywords: cause to effect, explicative cause, metaphor, inference, utterance
Cifra caratteristica dell’italiano neo-standard sono tratti linguistici una volta appartenenti al sub-standard, come il ‘che’ polivalente. In questo lavoro mi sono occupato di valutare se sia possibile o meno rintracciare il ‘che’ polivalente in un corpus annotato solamente per part of speech. Dai dati emerge come le sotto-tipologie di ‘che’ polivalente di tipo ‘giustappositivo’ siano estraibili dal corpus tramite query, mentre le sotto-tipologie di tipo ‘restrittivo’ non lo siano.
Keywords: corpus linguistics, POS-tagging, polyvalent use of che, neo-standard Italian, syntax
Based on the debate on children’s ability to produce argumentative discourse in different educational settings, this paper provides further support for the fact that small children are able to support their opinions with arguments. In particular, the paper makes a case in point on children’s appeal to definitional loci, when supporting their standpoints. The analysis of their reasoning’s implicit components shows how children apply different definitional arguments.
Keywords: adult-children interaction, argumentation, definition, small children’s speech
Nazarena Fazzari | Tra stabilità sociale e pornografia: giochi di parole sovversivi e armonizzazione su Internet nell’era Hu Jintao
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the policies adopted by the government of Hu Jintao (2002-2012) about the Internet. Such laws have been partially translated into Italian. Their aim alternates between the fight against pornography and the protection of social stability. The ‘digital resistance’ attempts to evade censorship through homophony, e.g. through the Baidu ten mythical creatures, the most famous being Caonima.
Keywords: Internet in China, digital resistance, harmonious society, caonima, censorship
In questo numero:
Elisa Bolchi | Paola Nardi | Erica Maggioni | Elisa Ramazzina | Laura Bignotti | Davide Vago | Federica Locatelli | Vittoria Prencipe | Franco Lonati | Daniela Fargione | Francesco Toniolo | Caterina Allais | Costanza Cucchi | Sonia Piotti | Nataly Botero
Si presenta qui un’intensa pagina di prosa letteraria tratta da La Montagne de la dernière chance, nella quale lo scrittore André Bucher descrive un rude paesaggio alpino, i cui elementi naturali (rocce, crepacci, acque e piante) sembrano animarsi, emanare grida allarmate, assumere compor¬tamenti non dissimili da quelli dell’uomo. Il vitalismo che anima la terra, anche nel senso delle urla che essa emette nei confronti della specie che oggi più che mai sembra minacciarla — quella umana — ci pare un’introduzione, sintetica e unitaria, ai temi che sono affrontati in questo nu¬mero monografico della Rivista, che porta il titolo Ecocritica ed ecodiscorso. Nuove reciprocità tra umanità e Pianeta. Questo testo ci è stato gentilmente concesso dall’Autore, che ringraziamo sentitamente.
Prendendo spunto da un passo del Sistema periodico in cui Levi definisce Dio un “maestro di polimerizzazioni” che non ama le sostanze “troppo incorruttibili”, questo saggio discute il tema della responsabilità ambientale e della trascendenza in relazione all’ecologia. In particolare, ci si sofferma sul pensiero di H. Jonas e sul legame che connette l’idea di responsabilità ambientale in Das Prinzip Verantwortung (1979) al pensiero dell’impotenza di Dio in Der Gottesbegriff nach Auschwitz (1987). Il saggio si conclude considerando le implicazioni di questi concetti per le en¬vironmental humanities, in connessione con i discorsi sulla giustizia ambientale (la slow violence di R. Nixon) e le nuove ontologie degli iper-oggetti (la object-oriented-ontology di Morton). Idea fondamentale è che la letteratura, specie quando ci parla della materialità e del nostro rapporto con il non umano, è una voce importante nell’orizzonte immanente/trascendente del nostro essere ambientale.
Keywords: Environmental humanities, ethics, ecology, transcendence, Hans Jonas, Primo Levi
The three main settings of McEwan’s Solar, a novel described as “the first great global-warming novel” (Walsh 2010) are significant: from London, to the Artic Pole, up to the desert in New Mexico, these places are all described through the interior monologue of the anti-hero Michael Beard, a character allegorical of humanity’s greed for selfish over-consumption. As Beard moves in the real environment only through the non-places of supermodernity (Augé), the paper ana¬lyses the descriptions of settings to underline how McEwan uses them to write about climate- change in a new “novelistic” way (McEwan).
Keywords: Ian McEwan, ecocriticism, Solar, places, environment
Paola A. Nardi, “Direction? … There was no direction. The prairie stretched to the end of the world”. American Land and the Pioneer Woman
Black Soil, a novel written by an Irish pioneer woman, tells about her arrival and settlement in the Iowa prairies in the second half of the 19th century. The goal of my essay is to investigate the strategies the immigrant woman Nell Connor adopts to survive on the American frontier.
Keywords: American West, the frontier, the Pioneer Woman, space, place, ecocriticism
Erica Maggioni, “Earth! have they gone into you?”
An Ecocritical Reading of the Relationship Between Man, Nature and War in Isaac Rosenberg’s Poems