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Fascicolo 2/2020

In questo numero:

Alberto Maria Langella| Patrizio Malloggi | Nazarena Fazzari | Victoria Bogushevskaya | Riva Evstifeeva | Jacopo Saturno | Manuela Pavone | Diego Sirico | Renato Rizzoli | Federica Perazzini | Riccardo Gramantieri | Daniela Puolato


Indice

Alberto Maria Langella, Le strutture matematiche del linguaggio nella teoria di Zellig Sabbettai Harris

In questo articolo mostro un’applicazione delle grammatiche di Zellig Sabbettai. Harris per operatori e argomenti allo studio della sintassi della lingua italiana. Zellig S. Harris iniziò a sviluppare la sua visione matematica del linguaggio naturale a partire dalla fine degli anni Quaranta muovendo da una visione distribuzionalista e pervenendo a un personalissimo metodo di indagine formale del linguaggio naturale. Il primo paragrafo è un’introduzione all’articolo in cui viene motivata la prospettiva formale adottata, nel secondo paragrafo vengono trattati i concetti ispiratori di una grammatica harrisiana o meglio i vincoli di base che presiedono alla creazione di strutture matematiche nel corpo del linguaggio. Nel terzo paragrafo discuto in maggior dettaglio del concetto di operatore e della tipologia degli operatori harrisiani.
This article aims at showing an application of Zellig Sabbettai Harris’ operator grammar to the description of Italian syntax. Zellig S. Harris started to develop his mathematical conception of natural language at the end of the forties starting from a distributionalist approach and culminating in a very personal method of formal investigation of natural language. The first paragraph is an introduction to the article with a theoretical justification of the formal perspective adopted, the second paragraph deals with the inspiring concepts of a harrisian grammar or rather the basic constraints which determine the creation of mathematical structures inside language. In the third paragraph I discuss in detail the concept of operator and the typology of harrisian operators.

Keywords: operator, argument, constraints, information, mathematical structure

Patrizio Malloggi | Die Präadverbien ‘ab’, ‘seit’, ‘von’

In traditional grammars, words are grouped into word classes according to various criteria. Classifications are based on syntactic, morphological and semantic criteria (Glinz 1968; Ehlich 2007, p. 51ff.). Nevertheless, some words are difficult to classify into a category, as consequence of idiosyncratic characteristics, for example ab, seit, von in German. These words can be considered as syntactic “Einzelgänger” (Pasch et al. 2003, p. 584ff.) since they show the syntactic behaviour of prepositions with dative as well as of pre-adverbs. In this paper the aim is to investigate the syntactic behaviour of ab, seit, von as pre-adverbs so that this word class can be included among the canonical word classes (see Duden 2006) on the basis of which the lexical items of the German language can be classified.
In den traditionellen Grammatiken werden die Wörter nach verschiedenen Kriterien in Wortklassen eingeteilt. Die Klassifizierungen basieren auf syntaktischen, morphologischen und semantischen Kriterien (Glinz 1968; Ehlich 2007, S. 51ff.). Dennoch lassen sich einige Wörter aufgrund idiosynkratischer Merkmale nur schwer in eine Kategorie einordnen, z.B. ab, seit, von im Deutschen. Diese Wörter können als syntaktische „Einzelgänger“ betrachtet werden (Pasch et al. 2003, S. 584ff.), da sie das typische syntaktische Verhalten von Präpositionen mit Dativ sowie von Präadverbien aufweisen. In der vorliegenden Arbeit soll das syntaktische Verhalten von ab, seit, von als Präadverbien untersucht werden, so dass diese Wortklasse zu den kanonischen Wortklassen (vgl. Duden 2006) gezählt werden kann, auf deren Grundlage das lexikalische Inventar der deutschen Sprache klassifiziert werden kann.

Keywords: word class classification, Einzelgänger, preposition, pre-adverb, adverbial complement

Nazarena Fazzari | Regali omofonici nel Cinese Moderno Standard (CMS)

Sulla base dei dati ricavati dalla trascrizione di 30 interviste semi-strutturate su un campione tipologico a scelta ragionata effettuate nel 2017 nell’Hebei (Cina), abbiamo verificato il ruolo dell’omofonia nello scambio dei doni nella vita quotidiana oggi in Cina da una prospettiva socio-linguistica.

On the basis of a spoken corpus we built during field research conducted in Langfang (Hebei), in 2017, through 30 semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample, we verified the role of homophony today in gift exchange in China from a sociolinguistic perspective.

Keywords: gift exchange, homophony, instrumental gifts, expressive gifts, Modern Standard Chinese, liwu jiaohuan 礼物交换

Victoria Bogushevskaya | Formal theory-driven, psycholinguistic data and corpus-driven study confirms the absence of a basic colour term for ORANGE in Modern Standard Mandarin and elaborates the syntaxico-semantic ‘distributional potential’ criterion for basicness

This paper deploys formal, experimental, and corpus-based evidence to demonstrate that, despite being psychologically salient in Modern Standard Mandarin, orange is not yet encoded by a monomorphemic monosyllabic single-character colour term, and the possible candidates do not possess the entire set of the criteria to become ‘basic’. It also suggests an additional analysis of the syntaxico-semantic ‘distributional potential’ criterion, which is a precondition for colour terms’ basicness.

Keywords: basic colour term, colour naming, mnemonic, chì-chéng-huáng-lü-qīng-lán-zi

Riva Evstifeeva | Лексикология и переводоведение: лексика интеллектуальных качеств человека в Вояжировом лексиконе С. С. Волчкова (1755? – 1764)

В статье анализируются переводческие стратегии С. Волчкова в работе над Вояжировым лексиконом. Сергей Волчков, один из наиболее плодовитых переводчиков XVIII в., связанный с Академией Наук, добавил русскоязычные толкования к французско-немецко-латинской части Nouveau Dictionnaire du Voyageur. Наибольшее внимание уделено лексике интеллектуальных качеств – с тем, чтобы сравнить примененные переводчиком подходы в ВЛ и в его наиболее известном переводческом труде, Придворном человеке (русскоязычной версии трактата Б. Грасиана Oráculo manual).

The article offers a contribution to the knowledge of S. Volchkov’s translation methods. Sergej Volchkov was one of the most prolific translators of the XVIII century related to the Academy of Sciences. In his Vojazhirov leksikon he added Russian definitions to the French-German-Latin part of the Nouveau Dictionnaire du Voyageur. In this article we provide a brief characteristic of Volchkov’s approach in his work on the dictionary and then analyse a selection of lemmas. The selection includes the terms that describe the intellectual qualities of a man, so to compare VL to Volchkov’s most renown translation, Pridvornoj chelovek (from Gracián’s Oráculo manual).

Keywords: translation studies, Volchkov, XVIIIth cent.

Jacopo Saturno e Manuela Pavone | Acquisizione del russo L2 per motivi umanitari

The paper describes the acquisition of L2 Russian by Italian volunteers hosting Russian-speaking children for humanitarian purposes. The focus is on an oral comprehension and production task, whose results show that alongside traces of inflectional morphology, production is mostly based on the juxtaposition of topic and comment. Performance is superior in production than comprehension, which is explained in terms of input and motivation. Didactic and acquisitional implications are discussed.

Il lavoro descrive l’acquisizione del russo L2 da parte di un gruppo di volontari italiani impegnati nell’accoglienza di bambini di lingua russa, concentrandosi su un esercizio di comprensione e produzione orale. I dati evidenziano alcune tracce di morfologia flessiva e la frequente contrapposizione tra topic e comment. Forse a causa di fattori legati all’input e alla motivazione, il punteggio è più alto in produzione che in comprensione. I risultati sono discussi in termini didattici e acquisizionali.

Keywords: L2 Russian, L2 for special purposes, initial SLA, input, utterance structure

Diego Sirico | Students’ Perceptions and Attitudes on the Use of Literature as a Tool for Learning English as a Foreign Language

Considering the lack of studies to support the theories regarding the advantages of integrating literature into language classes, our aim is to investigate the upsides of the use of literature in TEFL through empirical research. After teaching a set of lessons focused on three literary genres, we try to find out whether students’ views towards the use of literature in EFL classes change and which genre pupils perceive as the most beneficial. As for the quantitative research, we make use of a statistical survey through paired t-tests, effect size and ANOVA, while for the qualitative research, we try to uncover what underpins students’ viewpoints. Pupils’ feedback proves that literature can be a motivating and valuable source in developing linguistic and transversal competences.

Keywords: students’ perspective, literature in EFL classes, literary genres, quantitative and qualitative analysis

Renato Rizzoli | La Rivoluzione Finanziaria a teatro: la rappresentazione del credito (e il credito come rappresentazione) in alcune commedie inglesi fra Sei e Settecento

Il saggio trae spunto dagli studi di J.G.A. Pocock sulla Rivoluzione Finanziaria e sulla sua rappresentazione problematica nel dibattito pubblico. La tesi che qui si propone è che anche in alcuni commediografi (Shadwell, Taverner e Chetwood) che affrontano il tema e le sue ripercussioni sulle vicende sentimentali dei protagonisti, emergono, nonostante l’intento moralistico di condanna, contraddizioni e ambiguità che ripropongono la stessa problematica del dibattito pubblico.

By drawing upon J.G.A. Pocock’s studies on the Financial Revolution and its controversial reception in contemporary debate, the essay analyses three plays (Shadwell’s The Volunteers, Taverner’s The Female Advocates, and Chetwood’s The Stock-Jobbers), whose main theme is credit and tries to demonstrate that, behind its moralistic condemnation, there are ambiguities and contradictions that replicate the instability of the public debate.

Keywords: comedy, financial revolution, credit, speculation, representation, the return of the repressed

Federica Perazzini | Clothes Maketh the Gentleman: performance identitaria e vestimentaria in Great Expectations

L’articolo analizza la relazione tra abito e Bildung nella caratterizzazione del protagonista del controverso romanzo di formazione dickensiano Great Expectations. In particolare, si espliciterà la correlazione tra dinamiche di auto-rappresentazione identitaria e performance di classe configurate in termini di esibizione e adesione ad un determinato standard di regole, valori e codici vestimentari atti a garantire ai personaggi l’acquisizione dello sfuggente status di gentiluomo a cui aspirano.

The article focuses on the relationship between clothing and Bildung in the characterization of the protagonist of Dickens’s controversial Bildungsroman Great Expectations. The correlation between dynamics of self-representation and class performance will be analysed in terms of display and adherence to specific standards of rules, values and dress codes that aim to guarantee characters’ acquisition of the elusive status of gentleman they aspire to.

Keywords: Abito, Bildung, Gentiluomo, Great Expectations, Parvenu

Riccardo Gramantieri | Il cut-up di William S. Burroughs come trasformazione bioniana

Lo scrittore americano William Burroughs negli anni Sessanta usò una tecnica di composizione letteraria che chiamò cut-up. Essa consisteva nel destrutturare diverse fonti letterarie, per formare nuovi testi con significati simili o del tutto nuovi. Il cut-up può essere assimilabile al concetto di trasformazione bioniana, il quale descrive il cambiamento prodotto durante la situazione analitica che trasforma una condizione mentale precedente del paziente, in una nuova condizione psichica.

In 1960s American writer William Burroughs used a literary composition technique which he called ‘cut-up’. That method consisted in destructuring several literary sources, and reassembling them to form new texts with similar or new meanings. The ‘cut-up’ has some similarities with the concept of bionian transformation, which describes the change produced during the analytic situation that transforms a patient’s and the analyst’s previous mental condition into a new psychic condition.

Keywords: Wilfred R. Bion, William S. Burroughs, Cut-up, Funzione alfa, Trasformazioni

Daniela Puolato | Le pronom personnel sujet au 15e siècle : domaines littéraire et juridique

Dans cette contribution, l’étude de la variation syntaxique, observée dans différents types de texte, et l’intérêt pour la variation stylistique s’entrecroisent dans une dimension de contact juridico-littéraire. L’alternance présence/absence du pronom personnel sujet dans des textes remontant au moyen français est analysée dans une perspective quantitative, en tant que phénomène évolutif et stratégie narrative possible. Une attention particulière est réservée à la première personne.

In this contribution, the study of syntactic variation observed in different types of texts and an interest in stylistic variation intertwine in a legal-literary contact dimension. The presence/absence alternation of subject personal pronouns in texts dating back to Middle French is analysed from a quantitative perspective, and explained as the result of an evolutionary phenomenon and a possible narrative strategy. Special attention is devoted to the analysis of the first person pronoun.

Keywords: Middle French, subject personal pronouns, legal field, literary field

Indice degli Autori

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