In this issue:
Veronka Szőke | Alida Silletti | Monica Barsi | Sara Cigada e Caterina Garaffoni | Bernard Haidacher | Giancarmine Bongo | Elena Ballarin e Paolo Nitti |Francesca Saltamacchia e Andrea Rocci
The purpose of this essay is to analyse the economic imagery in Hamlet as it occurs in the play mainly in the form of similitudes, puns and metaphors. My point is that the economic images reproduce (and reaffirm) the central tenets of a mercantilist discourse along with its ambivalent notion of the market, which wavers between hegemonic, nationalistic attitudes and cosmopolitan and universal ones. This ambiguity plays an important role in underlining Hamlet’s ethical and epistemological deadlock in the role of revenger by tracing it, rather than to the eclipse of the late medieval order (according to Carl Scmitt’s famous thesis), to the contradictions of a modernity in progress to which the mercantilist discourse belongs.
Keywords: Mercantilism, money, goods exchange, Puritanism, Christian Humanism
Within Catherine Gore’s vast literary corpus there is an uncharacteristic novel titled Adventures in Borneo: A Tale of a Shipwreck (1849), in which the author experiments with exotic settings and adventures, a fictional subgenre in which she is not entirely comfortable. In the period of its publication, the British press was reporting and commenting on the controversial events involving Sir James Brooke, the White Rajah of Sarawak, and his anti-piracy campaign in the waters of the Malay Archipelago. In this article I try to investigate Gore’s take on such a delicate topic as British conduct in remote foreign lands, vis-à-vis alien cultures; I also refer to one of her unpublished letters, as well as to Brooke’s journal published in 1846 – most likely her primary source for the socio-cultural information on the Borneo population deployed in the novel. This article also seeks to contribute to the critical-literary debate over Catherine Gore providing a starting point for a more thorough study of her attitude towards British colonialism.
Keywords: Catherine Gore, James Brooke, Adventures in Borneo, exoticism
The reflection on human existence described by Rainer Maria Rilke in the arduous verses of the Duineser Elegien, one of the highest expressions of 20th century poetry, has been the object of a long, rigorous and illuminating meditation by Romano Guardini. To remember the great Italian-German Catholic intellectual, theologian and philosopher on the 50th anniversary of his death (1968-2018), this contribution anticipates some of the contents developed in the collection of Guardini’s writings on Rilke edited by the author, which will be published in 2019 by Morcelliana. Three are the main elements highlighted here: the academic and didactic reasons that led Guardini to reflect on Rilkes’ work; the essential outline of his hermeneutics; finally, the main reasons that caused Guardini to take a very critical stand towards Rilkes’ poetry, which represents a painful and dramatic reflection on the annihilation of the modern man.
Keywords: Romano Guardini, Rainer Maria Rilke, Elegie Duinesi
Since the inauguration of his career in 1963, with Le procès-verbal, 2008 Nobel Laureate, J.-M. Gustave Le Clézio has published over 40 works. His writing is characterized by an original style, in which the language aims to reproduce the complexity of reality. He writes about landscapes and traditions, nature (the richness of its fauna and flora), modern society – through various narrative strategies – collage techniques, lexical choices, figures of speech – that we will explore in this article.
Keywords: writing style, narrative strategies, collage techniques, lexical choices, figures of speech
Yahis Martari | Come scrivono i politici italiani su Facebook Appunti per un’analisi linguistica comparativa
This article aims at proposing a linguistic analysis of 358 posts written on Facebook (FB) by six Italian politicians. More specifically, the corpus consists of six official political Italian pages, which can be divided into two samples (three pages per sample), corresponding to two different observation moments: 1. December 2012 – January 2013 (88 post); 2. May – August 2017 (270 post). While the focus of attention is on posts, comments have also been taken into account in this survey (10 for each post). The two samples here analyzed are fairly close in time, but, given the accelerated speed of web evolution, some (micro-)diachronic remarks can be made in order to show how the Italian politicians’ communication on FB has been changed from 2013 to 2017.
In sections 1 and 2 the issue concerning the language of politics on the web (with special reference to social networks) has been introduced and the corpus has been presented in detail; in sections 3 and 4, the language and the stylistic characteristics of the two samples have been analyzed; finally, in sections 5 and 6, some concluding remarks are given, especially focusing the most recent sample.
Keywords: political communication, linguistic analysis, Facebook, writing
Valentina Noseda | La corpus revolution russa e il corpus parallelo italiano-russo: storia, criteri di compilazione e usi
This paper aims at presenting the Italian-Russian parallel corpus, expanded in 2015 and now available within the Russian National Corpus (Nacional’nyj Korpus Russkogo Jazyka). In particular, the paper describes the history, the design criteria, the phases of construction and the potential offered by this tool for language and literary studies in the field of Italian Slavistics.
Keywords: Corpus linguistics, parallel corpora, corpus design, contrastive linguistics, applied linguistics
Giulio Segato | The Home of the Brave. Sezione monografica a cura di G. Segato Hard, Stoic, Isolate, and a Killer. Appunti sul carattere americano
Questa sezione riprende alcuni degli interventi presentati al seminario di studi The Home of the Brave, svoltosi presso la sede milanese dell’Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore il 22 novembre 2016, con il contributo dei Dipartimenti di Scienze linguistiche e Letterature Straniere e di Scienze Politiche, cui vanno i miei più sentiti ringraziamenti. L’obiettivo del seminario era celebrare i duecentoquarant’anni dalla Dichiarazione d’Indipendenza degli Stati Uniti d’America (1776). In questa prospettiva, ci sembrò opportuno pensare a un titolo che esprimesse una certa solennità e, allo stesso tempo, alludesse almeno a una ‘qualità strutturale’ del carattere americano. The Home of the Brave – il terzo verso dell’inno nazionale americano, fortunatamente mai cantato – ci pareva un’espressione che centrasse abbastanza bene l’obiettivo.
This paper aims to examine the origin of the hard-boiled hero. I suggest it is possible to find his first arrival in the frontier romance created by James Fenimore Cooper in 1823 with The Pioneer, in which Natty Bumppo makes his first appearance, the real archetype of the hard-boiled detective. Then there is a second important stage: Allan Pinkerton’s narratives drawn from his real experience as a private vigilante. Pinkerton’s detectives were strong men of honor with a clear moral view, so his fictional heroes had the same features. The last influence on the hard-boiled hero is to be found in the dime novels protagonists’ evolution. If at first they were only cowboys, scouts or outlaws, at the end of XIX century they became detectives and the setting of the stories changed: no longer the landscape of the US/Mexico border but the big cities.
Keywords: Hard-boiled hero, detective novel, dime novels, J.F. Cooper, Allan Pinkerton
Starting from some definitions of ‘female heroism’ that highlight it as a problematic concept, this essay focuses on Margaret Fuller’s interest in different meanings and interpretations of the heroic ideal. Her Italian experience enables Fuller to recognize Giuseppe Mazzini as a supreme embodiment of modern heroism, as well as to explore the potential (which had already been taken into consideration in her treatise Woman in the Nineteenth Century) and the limits of a female incarnation of heroism.
Keywords: Female heroism, bravery, righteous violence
This paper aims to examine Carl Sandburg’s unusual trajectory from militant poet and socialist propagandist to standard-bearer for the American values of unity, freedom and progress. If in his first book, Chicago Poems, the author harshly criticized the American lifestyle and the capitalist system, over the years we witness a gradual transformation, which mitigates Sandburg’s controversial positions, until he became an embodiment of the founding ideals of the nation and a symbol of the American Dream.
Keywords: Sandburg, Lincoln, Chicago, America, Socialism
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In this Issue:
Veronka Szőke | Alida Silletti | Monica Barsi | Sara Cigada e Caterina Garaffoni | Bernard Haidacher | Giancarmine Bongo | Elena Ballarin e Paolo Nitti |Francesca Saltamacchia e Andrea Rocci
The Norwegian Rune Poem has often been evaluated negatively because of an overall impression of a lack of coherence and cohesion. Analysis of the poem against the background of wisdom tradition has allowed a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in its composition. The article considers the poem in parallel with Sólarljóð and Málsháttakvæði – two poetic works deriving from the same cultural context – and aims to further analise the poem’s structure and illuminate aspects of its imagery.
Keywords: Norwegian Rune Poem, Sólarljóð, Málsháttakvæði, runic lore
Alida Silletti | ‘Aller + infinitif’ et ‘andare a + infinitif’ : effets de sens ‘illustratif’ et ‘risolutivo’
Cette contribution aborde les parcours de grammaticalisation et les effets de sens d’‘aller + infinitif’ et de ‘andare a + infinitif’ en français et en italien contemporains. A partir d’un corpus parallèle de presse, nous montrerons que les effets de sens « illustratif » de la périphrase française et « risolutivo » de la périphrase italienne ne relèvent pas d’une correspondance entre les deux périphrases mais plutôt d’un simple contact entre leurs effets de sens.
Keywords : aller + infinitive; andare a + Infinitive, grammaticalization ; illustrative and risolutivo semantic values, contrastive analysis
The contribution studies the adaptations of the textbooks for the French teaching of Mauger bleu and Mauger rouge in Italian editions at Petrini. The two Maugers are significant in the history of glottodydactics because they attest, from the 1960s to the 1970s, the transition from a grammar of the parts of speech to a grammar of structures. In Italy, we will see the same movement that is here evoked to contextualize the Mauger in the Italian publishing market.
Keywords: Glottodidactics, second language teaching, French teaching, teaching methods
Sara Cigada e Caterina Garaffoni | Teatro sentimentale e propaganda Les Victimes cloîtrées di Jacques-Marie Boutet
We outline the emotive elements in the dramatic work of Boutet (Monvel), Les Victimes cloîtrées. Linguistic and discourse analysis are based both on Christian Plantin’s methodology and on Rodolphus Agricola’s XVth century model. It appears that the sentimental component of the pièce is consistent with the ideological goal of supporting Jacobin politics and discrediting the Church, in the context of the French Revolution.
Keywords: emotive argumentation, manipulation, emotions in discourse analysis, discourse analysis and argumentation, French Revolution
André Martinet (1979) is the originator of the term ‘confix’. However, in Romance linguistics the concept has not enjoyed much popularity. In French, we find a multitude of terms for these bound morphemes, which are typically integrated in the framework of composition. Nowadays, French linguists use the abstract schema of construction morphology, in which there are no specific categories. The German-speaking literature, by contrast, has paid a great deal of attention to the phenomenon.
Keywords: confix(es), research tradition, morphology, word-formation, neoclassical compounding
Giancarmine Bongo | Allgemeine Diskursreferenz in deutschen und italienischen Einleitungen zu wissenschaftlichen Zeitschriftenartikeln
This study examines a corpus of 40 Introductions to articles published in scientific specialized journals (20 in German language, 20 in Italian language), with regard to the relation, that each scientific text has to establish with its research background. Within this relation a peculiar dimension emerges, which on the basis of the concept of discourse by Foucault could be defined as ‚General Discourse Reference‘. It is the relation with the research background as the field of the ‘already-said’, of all effective statements, without reference to specific works or authors: it is thus the possibility to establish a not intertextual relation with a universe of texts. How and in what extent is such a ‚General Discourse Reference‘ realized in the analyzed Introductions? Are there cultural differences between German and Italian articles?
Keywords: discourse reference, introductions, scientific articles, German, Italian
Elena Ballarin e Paolo Nitti | I risultati di un’indagine sull’insegnamento e sulla rappresentazione dei colori nell’ambito dell’italiano L2/LS
The essay presents the results of a survey on the teaching methods and the representation of colors in Italian as Second Language (ISL). The survey was administered to the teachers and the analysis shows that few teachers have the awareness of the lexicon complexity and the mechanisms connected to the texts. The representation of colors in different languages is contemplated by a very short number of informants, giving the idea that the transmission of the vocabulary in ISL education is a mere fact of translation between the two languages. In the light of these data, teachers should be involved in learning practices in order to understand the role of the vocabulary and the lexicon in a language and the methods for teaching it in ISL classes.
Keywords: colors, vocabulary, L2-LS, ethnolinguistics, psycholinguistics, acquisitional linguistics
Francesca Saltamacchia e Andrea Rocci | Metapragmatica della cortesia nell’Italia del primo Ottocento. La polemica sulla cortesia tra Melchiorre Gioja e Antonio Rosmini: utilitarismo o principio di carità
This article shows an example of explicit argumentation about politeness: the dispute between Melchiorre Gioja and Antonio Rosmini about the chapter Apologia della moda written by Melchiorre Gioja in the Nuovo Galateo (1820). In particular, we examine Rosmini’s Galateo de’letterati (1828) and we focus on arguments that justify Rosmini’s metapragmatics comments and fallacies.
Keywords: Politeness, argumentation, nineteenth-century, Italy, controversy, fallacy
In this Issue:
Jennifer Valcke, Amanda C. Murphy, Francesca Costa | Joanne Pagèze, David Lasagabaster | Elizabeth Long | Susanna Broggini| Robert Wilkinson, René Gabriëls | Cristina Mariotti | Francesca Helm, Fiona Dalziel
Jennifer Valcke, Amanda C. Murphy, Francesca Costa | Introduction EMI – A Tool for the Internationalisation of Higher Education
Round table moderated by Prof. Simonetta Polenghi, Professor of History of Education, Head of the Department of Education | What are we Changing when we Teach in English? Views from the Schools of Economics, Mathematics and Physics, Engineering and Linguistics
The Round Table was set up to provide a variety of answers to the same question: What are we changing when we teach in English? Representatives from four different disciplinary areas took part, three from Milan – Management, Engineering and Linguistics – and two – Maths and Physics – from Brescia. The issues that were brought up overlap to some extent, but each disciplinary area pointed out something original, indicating areas for future research. The speakers’ contributions have been edited slightly, but some elements of spoken discourse have been preserved for the sake of authenticity.
Francesca Costa | The Introduction of English as an Academic Language in a Faculty of Physics and Mathematics in Italy
The use of English as a medium of instruction at university level has increased dramatically in the last 15 years all over Europe. English-taught programmes are often imposed top-down, and this article presents one of the very few cases in which the process and decision-making have been documented, in terms of a pre-feasibility study conducted through a student questionnaire and interview with the Dean. The research is set within the Italian context of a Faculty of Mathematics and Physics. Results reveal that in general students have a positive attitude towards this implementation, but many adjustments still need to be carried out.
Keywords: EMI, English as an academic language, Mathematics and physics
Joanne Pagèze, David Lasagabaster| Teacher Development for Teaching and Learning in English in a French
Higher Education Context
Discussion of the impact of institutional initiatives on the development of EMI in the French context has been minimal due to the particular way in which EMI has emerged in France. The aim of this paper is to explore the impact of a teacher development initiative set up in 2014 at the University of Bordeaux in order to help disciplinary teachers make the transition to teaching their discipline in English. The objective here is to explore how local context is impacting this shift in teaching and learning practices through EMI.
Keywords: teacher development / EMI / France / Internationalisation
This article maps the evolution of lecturer training courses at the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia since 2011 to the present to meet the growth of English taught degree programmes being offered. It illustrates a three-pronged approach developed to deliver methodological and language instruction to Italian lecturers through three distinct “Lecturing in English” modules, outlining the rationale behind each element. It also considers the new role of the teacher trainer in training university teachers.
Keywords: English Medium Instruction, teacher education, ongoing professional development, English-taught programmes, UNIMORE.
Susanna Broggini, Amanda C. Murphy | Metadiscourse in EMI lectures: Reflections on a Small Corpus of Spoken Academic Discourse
This paper describes a qualitative study on the use of metadiscourse in EMI university courses. It adopts Noble’s simplified and restricted classification model of metadiscourse markers, adapted from Ädel, focuses on reflexive language and is applied to academic spoken discourse.
Keywords: Metadiscourse, discourse analysis, academic spoken discourse, corpus-based study, qualitative research
Robert Wilkinson, René Gabriëls | Adapting to EMI in Higher Education: Students’ Perceived Learning Strategies 341Adapting to EMI in Higher Education: Students’ Perceived Learning Strategies
To a varying extent, many universities are changing their language of instruction to English in order to position themselves in the global market of higher education. This change attracts mobile students who wish to undertake studies abroad, but they may have to adjust the way they study. The central question in the study we report here is how students perceive an effect of English-medium instruction on their learning strategies. In an exploratory study, students were interviewed about their learning strategies as a consequence of EMI, about possible inequalities in EMI and how they perceive them. The findings suggest that modification of learning strategies depends on personal agency and the learning context. The interviews reveal three types of linguistic asymmetry at the individual level under EMI. The qualitative data confirm findings of previous studies and suggest new perspectives for quantitative research on learning strategies in EMI and linguistic inequalities.
Keywords: English-medium instruction (EMI), learning strategies, language inequalities, linguistic asymmetry
Francesca Costa, Cristina Mariotti | Students’ Outcomes in English-Medium Instruction: Is there any Difference Related to Discipline?
This paper focuses on the acquisition of content in Economics and Science EMI classes taught by the same lecturers. The control group consists of L1-taught classes (Italian), whereas the experimental group consists of L2-taught classes (English). Students’ marks in two comparable written exams are analysed. Data are complemented with interviews with the lecturers. The results show that in some instances the two groups differ significantly as regards the acquisition of content.
Keywords: ICLHE, content acquisition, content presentation, English-medium instruction, Italian-medium instruction
Francesca Helm, Fiona Dalziel | Beyond the Classroom: the Impact of EMI on a University’s Linguistic Landscape
In this paper we explore the linguistic landscape of an Italian state university. A “Linguistic Landscape” refers to the language visible in public spaces, and to a transdisciplinary approach adopted in language policy studies, often in “arenas of contestation”. The EMI context can be considered such an arena; linguistic landscaping offers an exciting new methodological approach, enabling observation of the changing face of universities in their quest for ever-increasing internationalisation.
Keywords: English-Medium Instruction (EMI), Linguistic Landscape (LL), language policy, internationalisation
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Esthétiques et idéologie dans la narration des monuments
Nous proposons de consacrer une section thématique du numéro 2/2018 de la revue “L’Analisi Linguistica e Letteraria” aux expressions d’écriture créative inspirées par les monuments, dans le but de mieux comprendre comment et pourquoi la re/construction de leurs genèses spécifiques, la description des structures architectoniques, le déchiffrage de leur symbologie, les histoires des commissionnaires et des artistes qui ont contribué à leur réalisation peuvent engendrer des interprétations ou des “surinterprétations”, qui convergent dans la rédaction de textes de différente nature: des essais, des contes, des nouvelles, des romans historiques ou des poèmes.
Chaque article étudiera les formes que revêtent les reconstructions des monuments de la part des auteurs, qui révèlent leurs évaluations esthétiques ou idéologiques sur l’objet de la description.
On étudiera notamment la narration de monuments tels que :
- des bâtiments polysémiques, enracinés en un lieux spécifique et en un contexte historique précis, mais ouverts aussi à de multiples extensions interculturelles ;
- des formes de construction, restructuration ou de contestation des identités historiques et des mémoires culturelles ;
- des “moteurs de l’imaginaire”, qui suscitent des figures et des événements de nature mythique.
On vise à sélectionner des articles centrés sur la narration de monuments en de multiples pays, dans le but de tracer une vaste topographie internationale du sujet.
Les Collègues intéressés sont invités à rédiger un résumé en anglais de 400 mots maximum, accompagné de 3-5 mots-clé, et à l’envoyer avant le 15 novembre 2017 a Marisa Verna (firstname.lastname@example.org) et à Paola Spinozzi (email@example.com).
L’acceptation de l’article sera communiquée avant le 30 novembre 2017. L’échéance pour l’envoi du texte complet est fixée au 1er mars 2018.
Les articles ne devront pas dépasser les 50.000 caractères (espaces inclus) et devront être conformes aux Normes éditoriales de la revue, téléchargeables à l’adresse URL: www.analisilinguisticaeletteraria.eu.
La publication est prévue pour décembre 2018.
In this issue:
Sarah Bigi & Chiara Pollaroli | Marco Passarotti | Giovanni Palmieri | Jadranka Cergol | Alice Crosta | Elisa Ramazzina | Sara Scarpellini | Federica Venier
Sarah Bigi e Chiara Pollaroli, La costruzione delle preferenze dei consumatori/ pazienti: il concetto di ‘alimentazione sana’ nei messaggi pubblicitari di prodotti alimentari
In this article we discuss how commercials about food contribute to the construc-tion of the concepts of ‘healthy, natural and genuine food’. We analyze a corpus of interviews by identifying all the passages in which consumers speak about products providing reasons for considering them ‘natural’ or ‘healthy’. By analyzing the ar-gumentation schemes and by relating them to the multimodality in the commer-cials, we describe the reasoning underlying consumers’ motivations.
Keywords: preferences; decision making; argumentative schemes; multimodal discourse analysis.
Marco Passarotti, How Far Is Stanford from Prague (and vice versa)? Comparing Two Dependency-based Annotation Schemes by Network Analysis
The paper evaluates the differences between two currently leading annotation schemes for dependency treebanks. By relying on four treebanks, we demonstrate that the treatment of conjunctions and adpositions represents the core difference between the two schemes and that this impacts the topological properties of the linguistic networks induced from the treebanks. We also show that such properties are reflected in the performances of four probabilistic dependency parsers trained on the treebanks.
L’articolo valuta le differenze tra i due principali schemi di annotazione a dipenden-ze in uso. Sulla base di quattro treebank, l’articolo dimostra che il trattamento delle congiunzioni e delle pre/postposizioni rappresenta la differenza principale tra i due schemi e che ciò comporta delle conseguenze sulle proprietà topologiche dei net-work indotti dalle treebank. Inoltre, si dimostra come tali proprietà siano riflesse nell’accuratezza di quattro parser probabilistici a dipendenze addestrati sulle treebank.
Keywords: treebank, syntax, network analysis, natural language processing
After a wide historical-philological reconstruction of the correspondence between Saussure and Pascoli, the article suggests new perspectives on the anagrammatic re-search. In particular Saussure could have discovered the “significants” and the “par-adigmatic series” thanks to his research on the phonics associations which are pre-sent in the anagrammatic structures of the language. An imaginary letter, which may be not so imaginary, closes the article by showing how Pascoli could have an-swered to Saussure regarding the issue of the anagrams included in the poetic text.
Keywords: anagram, hypogram, intentionality, vocal figure, autonomy of the signif-icants, games of signs, paradigmatic series, Freud.
Jadranka Cergol, Some typological features of ‘minority’ literature: the case of the Slovenian and Italian minorities
The aim of the article is to problematize the use of the term ‘minority’ literature. The term proposed by Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari proves to be too narrow and applicable only to a part of the variety of minority literatures. The aim of the article is therefore to provide a new definition of ‘minority literature’ by taking into ac-count literature written by two minority groups, Slovenes living in Italy and Ital-ians living in Slovenia and Croatia. The article even goes a step forward and poses the question whether ‘minority literature’ could be regarded as a completely inde-pendent supranational literary system.
Keywords: minority literature, regional literature, Slovenes in Italy, Italians in Slo-venia and Croatia, interculturalism
Manzoni’s essay on the French revolution includes an American chapter, in which the author regards the American revolution as more just and effective than the French revolution. In support of this thesis, he quotes several sources: George Ban-croft’s History of the United States, the preface of the Declaration of Independence and the preamble of the Constitution of the United States. In this paper it will be proved that Manzoni, who did not know the English language, used some transla-tions, which he did not quote in the footnotes: French translations of Bancroft’s History and of the Declaration of Independence, and an Italian translation of the American Constitution.
Keywords: Manzoni, United States, revolution, translations, Guizot, Bancroft.
The aim of this study is to determine whether and to what extent the English poet John Milton may have been influenced in the composition of Paradise Lost by the Old English poem known as Genesis B. The paper will examine similarities and dif-ferences in the characterisation of Satan and of the temptation of Adam and Eve in both poems. The comparison between two of the illuminations of the Junius 11 ms. and the corresponding passages in Paradise Lost will be part of the analysis.
Keywords: Old English, Genesis, Satan, Milton, Junius 11 manuscript
Sara Scarpellini, Contributo per un’edizione critica della versione armena dell’Eutifrone di Platone: il manoscritto 1123 della Biblioteca dei Padri Mechitaristi di Venezia e l’edizione a stampa
The old Armenian Version of Plato’s Euthyphro is preserved in a unique manuscript (n. 1123) in the library of the San Lazzaro Fathers Mekitarists in Venice. In 1877 Fa-ther Suk‘rean edited this translation which was later studied by Frederick Cornwal-lis Conybeare in 1891 and by Roberto Solari in 1969, without re-examining the man-uscript accurately.
In this article, which is a first step to a future edition, I will submit the text of Fa-ther Suk‘rean’s work alongside an in-depth analysis of both the manuscript itself and the edition, in order to provide better readings from a philological and a lin-guistic point of view.
Keywords: Euthyphro, Plat, Armenian translation, manuscript
Federica Venier, Intorno al volume: la lengua del imperio. La retorica del imperialismo en Roma y la globalizacion
Keywords: political rhetoric; imperialism; propaganda; ancient Rome; United States of America.
In this issue:
L. Balbiani – F. Missaglia – R. Jaradat – A. Carminati – E. Musi – P. Spinozzi
Laura Balbiani, Kompositionsfreudige Italienreisende Wortbildungsphänomene in Reiseberichten aus drei Jahrhunderten
This paper focuses on the textual genre ‘travel report’ and analyses range and characteristics of nominal composition phenomena as they occur in a specific text corpus, put together to serve this purpose. Such phenomena are illustrated from a synchronic point of view, i.e. referred to one single text, but also diachronically, thanks to the contrastive analysis of texts written in three different centuries (from 1642 to 1958). The ongoing research provides significant indications about the morphosyntactical strategies used in these texts to build compound words and information about their main linguistic components, such as lexical units, confixes and connecting elements; but it is interesting also in a diachronic perspective, because it points out the development of these strategies and their changes in time as well as the growing specialisation of some compound-related elements. The corpus can also be evaluated with the aim of writing a history of this text genre and, of course, a linguistic history of travel, since it gives evidence about the constitution of a specialised language of tourism.
Keywords: compounding – travel accounts – language of tourism
Federica Missaglia, Verbale und non-verbale Kommunikation interkulturell: Eine sprachwissenschaftliche Perspektive für die Wirtschaft und die internationalen Beziehungen
Italian graduates with high competence in German language and extensive knowledge in the areas of Business Communication and/or International Relations are the target group of specific scientific investigations. These account for their competence level and analyse relevant intercultural aspects of communication with its verbal and non-verbal components. This paper describes a specific competence-profile for intercultural communication in knowledge-based, competitive and innovative Europe.
Keywords: intercultural communicatiuon, verbal and non-verbal aspects of communication, competence-profile for employability in Europe
Riham Jaradat, Une lecture textuelle de la violence cachée dans le discours idéologique écrit : L’écriture et la différence comme exemple
Comme il existe une relation étroite entre idéologie et discours écrits, cette étude a choisi de tracer cette relation entre le discours de Jacques Derrida – représenté par son livre L’écriture et la différence – et l’intertexte impliquant certaines formes d’idéologie. Grâce à l’observation de nombre d’extraits textuels, il sera question de relever quelques traces de violence qui démontreront que Derrida idéologise son texte tout en supprimant certains points de vue d’autrui pour mettre ainsi sur le devant de la scène ses propres points de vue de manière à ce qu’ils soient conformes à ses objectifs et à son approche déconstructionniste. Ayant à l’esprit le rapport triangulaire scripteur/identité/idéologie, cette étude aura mis en pratique l’habitude déconstructionniste de lire/analyser un texte et puis de le reconstruire/réécrire.
Keywords: Ideology – violence – deconstruction – Derrida – Intertextuality – written discourse
Anna Carminati, Sondaggi sul linguaggio di Clemente Rebora traduttore dal russo. Tra le novelle di Andreev e le prose di guerra
The interest in the Russian world which was clearly manifest in Clemente Rebora’s life in the period after the First World War has a significant role in his human and poetic path. This is particularly explicit in the translation of Eleazar the story written by Leonid Andreev, published in 1919 and in which Rebora recognizes the description of his own experience lived in the frontline. The latter is reflected in the process of translation which gives the opportunity to revealing the meaning of the works. This essay is driven within the area of Italian studies. It analyses Rebora’s Lazarus in the context of the coeve works of the Milanese poet, particularly the prose of war lyrics. It also identifies the parts where the translator, clearly distancing from the original without betraying it, allows his personal voice to emerge. The stylistic analysis shows how the resemblance of the translated works enables Rebora to give back the expressive peculiarity of Andreev’s language with Italian features.
Keywords: the experience of the war; translation; poetic language; Rebora; Andreev.
Elena Musi, Argomentare parlando e parlare argomentando: la polisemia della parola ‘argomento’ nella Divina Commedia
This paper proposes a semantic analysis of the word ‘argomento’ in Dante’s Divine Comedy, from the perspective of argumentation theory. The term ‘argomento’, polysemous since its Latin origins, in addition to indicating the topic of a discourse, is part of the technical lexicon of argumentation. The results of the analysis show that i) the meanings associated with the term in the Divine Comedy always have a meta-argumentative value and are mutually metonymically connected; ii) there has been a progressive semantic intratextual change of the term in the three cantiche from indicator of pragmatic argumentation to indicator of knowledge argumentation. Finally, the analysis of the inferential configuration activated by the term in Paradise XXVI sheds light on the complex relationship between faith and reason underlying the entire work.
Keywords: argumentation, Divina Commedia, polysemy, semantics, argumentative indicator
Paola Spinozzi, “Preposterous thicks and thins”: i libri ideali di William Morris fra intermedialità e teoria sociale
Print and typography fulfil a peculiar role among the numerous expressions of the osmosis between verbal and visual art pursued by William Morris. His ideal book – a material object and an object d’art – raise fundamental questions about the interdependence of word and image, the connections between form and content, the role of art in society, the interactions between aesthetics and politics. The reasons why Morris criticized Giambattista Bodoni have been overlooked until now; they need to be investigated, because they reveal how aesthetic and ideological views intertwined in the late 19th and early 20th century evolution of typography and book design.
Keywords: William Morris; Giambattista Bodoni; ideal book; interartistic esthetics; social theory; utopia.
Giovanni Gobber, Rassegna di Linguistica generale e di glottodidattica
Enrica Galazzi e Chiara Molinari, Rassegna di Linguistica francese
Margherita Ulrych e Amanda Murphy, Rassegna di Linguistica inglese
Anna Bonola, Rassegna di Linguistica russa
Federica Missaglia, Rassegna di Linguistica tedesca
In 2016 the Journal “L’Analisi Linguistica e Letteraria” is publishing a thematic issue titled: Ecospeak and Ecocriticism: What Reciprocity Between Humanity and the Planet?
Since the end of last century our Planet Heart has become the object of an attention aimed at awakening environmental awareness. “Being” means today “being in a place” and the word ‘place’, as opposed to the more abstract ‘space’, has become an essential concept to rethink our way to inhabit the Planet. In this sense, Yi-Fu Tuan affirms that places are “centers of felt value”, because humans can develop a place-attachment but not a space-attachment, this last being a geometrical or topographical abstraction without sentimental bonds.
One of the theories exploring these matters is Ecocriticism, born with the “intent to include the environmental question in literary criticism, as it had already been done for civil rights and for the feminist and postcolonial question” (S. Iovino). Which points of view can then spread from such a perspective, not only on literary matters but inside a wider analysis taking into consideration the so called Ecospeak? How does communication treat the relationship humanity/nature? We invite to present contributions answering, from a synchronic and diachronic point of view, one or more of the following questions:
- How does the Ecological question and consciousness modify the narration, both at discourse and contents level?
- How do different literary traditions relate to the concept of Ecocriticism?
- Is Ecocriticism compatible with the Christian conception of the creation?
- Which argumentative strategies are used in ecocritical discourse and how are they transposed from one cultural field to another through translation?
- Which communicative manipulations are put to use with respect to the new and increasingly widespread ecological sensibility?
- How does the ecological crisis and the modern ecological awareness intervene in the relationship of humans with the place where they live?
We believe this last perspective to be particularly interesting to be explored in the year when EXPO 2015, titled Nutrire il Pianeta, Energia per la Vita, takes place in Milan. Moreover, the theme of sustainability, of intelligent and responsible growth, of attention to the Planet, to climate changes, to resources and raw materials are among the key points of Horizon 2020.
We invite submissions related, but not limited to, any of the aforementioned issues.
Deadline for submissions : 22 November 2015.
Papers, no longer than 20.000 characters with spaces, must be submitted online through the journal website : http://www.analisilinguisticaeletteraria.eu and must follow the journal stylesheet.
Authors will be notified of acceptance/rejection by April 2016.
In this issue:
A. Cattani – F. H. van Eemeren – M.D. Aeschliman – V. Prencipe – V. Bogushevskaya – C. Naccarato – C. Macagno – G. Giardini
Frans H. van Eemeren, Sulla ragionevolezza
M.D. Aeschliman, A Dark Angel and His Masterpiece: Aldous Huxley and Brave New World
Vittoria Prencipe, Origine e significato delle parole che parlano di cibo
The project aims to trace the semantic of the most commonly used words referred to food, beside ‘food’ and ‘nourishment’, through a prevailing etymological analysis, in order to highlight the differences that got lost in their current use. The second part of the article focuses on the concept of ‘feast’, convivium, a way to spend life together, upon which the Western idea of civilization is based.
Keywords: food, nourishment, banquet, civilization
One of the peculiarities of Chinese colour vocabulary is that the composite qīng 青category not only denotes green-blue continuum, but also extends into the macro-black area of a colour space. Qīng is one of the five canonical colours in China. Although it has a binary word formation function – as a radical in derived colour lexemes in wenyan and as a morpheme in compounds in Modern Standard Mandarin – it is not a basic colour term in contemporary Chinese, there are separate psychologically salient terms for ‘green’, ‘blue’ and ‘black’. The paper aims to provide semantic analysis of all the existing meanings of the polysemantic qīng, determines the sequence of their emergence and puts forward a hypothesis about the reasons for their syncretism.
Keywords: colour naming, grue, macro-category, qing, colour categorisation
Chiara Naccarato, I composti verbali in russo
This paper is about verbal compounds in Russian. After a brief description of the main characteristics of verbal compounds and of the criteria used for their identification, Russian verbal compounds are classified on the basis of their morphological structure. Finally, the different types of verbal compounds are identified and the compounds that cannot be regarded as ‘verbal’ are excluded from this category.
Keywords: compounding, verbal compounds, Russian, argument structure
Claudio Macagno, La poetica di titoli e copertine dei gialli di Dar’ja Doncova
This paper investigates the titles and the covers of Darya Dontsova’s detective novels. Starting from a number of considerations on the importance and function of the title in literary texts in general, the work focuses on the investigation of this phenomenon in mass popular literature, the genre which Dontsova’s novels belong to. The article describes the linguistic and semioic processes on which the choice of the titles and the covers is based. The principal semantic groups, the relationship between the titles of Dontsova’s novels and the series in which they are grouped are also examined. The numerous intertextual references that can be found in the titles on the one hand render the titles more attractive, on the other hand reveal a refined and sophisticated operation, the result of a poetic expression of our times.
Keywords: mass popular literature, detective story, Dar’ja Doncova, titology, intertextuality
Giorgia Giardini, Il messaggio sociale nel teatro di Miguel Hernández
Ce travail se propose d’illustrer la trajectoire sociale et politique de Miguel Hernández à travers ses pièces de théâtre : nous analyserons sa progressive adhésion au communisme et son activité de propagande pendant la Guerre Civile Espagnole. En même temps, nous décrirons plusieurs choix thématiques de l’auteur, avec une attention particulière à la caractérisation des personnages dans ses pièces engagées.
Keywords: Miguel Hernández, engaged theatre, characters, evolution
Giovanni Gobber, Rassegna di Linguistica generale e di glottodidattica
Enrica Galazzi e Chiara Molinari, Rassegna di Linguistica francese
Margherita Ulrych e Amanda Murphy, Rassegna di Linguistica inglese
Anna Bonola, Rassegna di Linguistica russa
Federica Missaglia, Rassegna di Linguistica tedesca
Dans ce numéro:
C. Assoni – T. Austenfeld – R. Barsky – F. Baucia – F. Bellini – B. Belloni – L. Bignotti – E. Bolchi – S. Carini – S. Cigada – M. Corradini – F. Crippa – C. Foppa Pedretti – G. Grata – F. Locatelli – F. Lonati – R. Marseglia – L. Mor – P. Nardi – D. Pagani – R. Pignataro – P. Ponti – F. Rognoni – S. Rosso – B. Saglietti – G. Segato – D. Vago – M. Verna
The Lord of The Rings is not a book for children or a fantasy saga based on pure escape, but it’s an epic tale about surviving to the ugliness of modern life. In On Fairy-Stories, Tolkien explains his concept of ‘escape’: a vital impulse to ‘sub-creation’, a saving moment for every human being; its final product is the creation of a different world, shaped on Beauty, and placed in a mythical and eternal time. According to Tolkien, fantasy has three main functions: recovery, escape and consolation, intertwined in an indissoluble way. This refreshing fantasy allows men to escape from the prison of a life restricted by lies, meaningless formalities and influences. And through it, men can once again look to reality with freshness, seeing it without any present mark in a mythical air; escape starts a process that finds its fulfilment into the ‘eucatastrophe’, that is not only the simple ‘happy ending’ of fairy-stories, but is an echo of the Evangelium in the real world.
Thomas Austenfeld, Fleeing, Flying, Staying, Leaving: The Persistence of Escape in American Literature
The creative potential inherent in the dual meaning of the verbs ‘to flee/to fly’, denoting both escape and movement through air, is illustrated in foundational American narratives of flight – in the forms of escape, abandonment, and thwarted departure – with notable gender variations. Barbara Kingsolver’s 2012 novel Flight Behavior recapitulates this tradition even while extending it to the discourse of global climate change.
Robert Barsky, The Savage Pilgrimage: D.H. Lawrence’s Dialogic Journeys upon Monte Verità, the Mountain of Truth
At the center of D.H. Lawrence’s enormous corpus of poetry, short stories, novels, and literary criticism is Lady Chatterley’s Lover, one of a long line of censored classics described in a recent work as Dirt for Art Sake. Despite the popularity of Lawrence’s writings, however, and the notoriety he gained from legal proceedings initiated against him in the name of censorship, few critics have situated his literary and cultural quest as regards his intense intellectual engagement with contemporary counter-culture in Germany and in Switzerland and many, perhaps as a consequence, deride or shun his more bawdy work. In this paper, I will argue that examples of contemporary counterculture, and in particular his engagement with ideas emanating from the anarchist, bohemian, nudist, sun-worshipping, vegetarian, artistic colony at Monte Verità, were key catalysts for the dialogic and carnivalesque qualities of works such as Sun and Lady Chatterley’s Lover. This talk will trace the historical and ideological tentacles that connect Lawrence’s work to contemporary counter-culture, and then conclude by linking his approach to the writings of M.M. Bakhtin, whose corpus reads like a ‘how-to’ manual for readers willing to truly engage Lawrence’s bawdy, earthy, dialogic writing.
Francesco Baucia, Fughe ‘dal’ tempo, fughe ‘nel’ tempo: Borges, McTaggart, Nabokov
This paper presents two different kinds of relationship between the concepts of ‘flight’ and ‘temporality’, which are resumed by two nabokovean sentences. We can call the first one ‘flight out of time’: this kind of relationship reveals a sceptical attitude towards the real existence of time, an attitude shared by writers (Borges) and philosophers (McTaggart). The second one can be called ‘flight in time’: according to Nabokov, temporality is at the heart of art and literature, and so it’s impossible to realize a true ‘escape’ from time. In this sense, the real aim of the good artist should be the flight in the pure medium of time, namely in the ‘texture’ (different from the ‘text’, the ‘content’, of time) of the temporal dimension.
Federico Bellini, In fuga sulla sedia a dondolo: Murphy di Samuel Beckett
The paper deals with the significance of the rocking chair in Samuel Beckett’s novel Murphy, considered as an item of Beckett’s ‘geometrical symbolism’. I claim that the shape of the rocking chair can be interpreted in connection to Beckett’s interest in irrational numbers used as a means to explain his characters’ relation with the world. Moreover, I hint at how, under this light, the rocking chair can be related to another typical Beckettian prop, the bicycle, and show how the complementary symbolism of these two objects may serve as a paradigm for a typology of Beckett’s characters.
Benedetta Belloni, Storia di una diaspora morisca: le istruzioni per la fuga verso Oriente nel manoscritto aljamiado 774 della Biblioteca Nazionale di Parigi
This article analyzes a fragment (ff. 37v-39r) of the Aljamiado manuscript n. 774 that belongs to the National Library in Paris. The study aims to reflect on the value of the document as a historical evidence of the flight to the East of some members of the Hispano-Muslim community, and to think about the considerable significance that the aljamiado-morisco production has in the Spanish literature of the 16th and 17th centuries.
The present article illustrates the presence and the evolution of the escape theme in the poetry of the late-baroque author Johann Christian Günther (1695-1723). This topic is to be found in the frequent lexical references to life’s fleeting nature that characterize Guenther’s early lyrics as well as in his late production, when he often mentions his desire to flee from a world, which is unable to receive his poetical message and, at the same time, from the declining Baroque conventions.
Elisa Bolchi, Fuga verso il presente. Un’analisi delle fughe in The Stone Gods di Jeanette Winterson
When The Stone Gods begins, an escape seems the only possibility to survive a planet, incredibly similar to ours, that is going to die. But this escape will be useless, because the new arrival, the new hope, will reveal to be our present, Planet Earth, that at the end of the novel is in such a bad condition to offer, once again, escape as the only alternative. In Winterson’s novel, escape is a concept widely analyzed in different ways: escape from society, escape from the socially accepted ‘normality’, from cultural cages and, last but not least, escape from a dying out planet.
Sara Carini, “La historia no la leemos, la releemos siempre”: fuga dall’archivio in Rodrigo Rey Rosa e Horacio Castellanos Moya
The article analyses the relationship between archive and history in two Centro American novels: El material humano by Rodrigo Rey Rosa and Insensatez by Horacio Castellanos Moya. The analysis clarifies how the search for collective identity into the archive appears to both protagonists as an escape from a present considered violent and chaotic but also as an escape from a tyrannical and silenced past that is still oppressing them. The escape is indeed frustrated by fear and paranoia deriving from the impossibility of revisiting and knowing the past in total freedom.
Sara Cigada, La Fuite dans Les Passions de l’âme (Descartes)
In his last treatise, Descartes defines human passions a problematic topic in his system. From a theoretical point of view, the human being is formed by an immaterial and a material substance, completely independent from each other. Nonetheless, passions surprisingly involve both reason and body in a joint experience. Flight is an example Descartes often refers to in order to explain that man should be able, thanks to a hard training comparable to dog training, to resist any passion. But this not always the case. Furthermore, the instinct to flee may be regarded as an element of every passion. That is why it may also be considered as a hint to the deepest orientation towards good of any human action.
Marco Corradini, Le sirene, la poesia, la morte. Appunti su Omero e Pascoli
Even though the Sirens’ song poses a deadly threat to whoever listens to it, it is also paralleled to knowledge and poetry itself. The present study examines the Homeric archetype and its rewriting in Giovanni Pascoli’s Ultimo viaggio (in Poemi conviviali, 1904), with a view to illustrating how in the former case the Sirens are a danger to steer clear of, while in the latter they are the ultimate goal of Ulysses’ quest for identity and the absolute – yet, this time the Sirens are silent and elusive.
Francesca Crippa, In fuga dalla storia, dagli stereotipi e dalle convenzioni sociali: il caso della ‘Pastora’ in Donde nadie te encuentre di Alicia Giménez-Bartlett
Within Alicia Giménez-Bartlett’s novel, Donde nadie te encuentre, the desire to escape follows two different directions. Teresa Pla Meseguer flies away from a society incapable of accepting her diversity. At the same time, the other characters of the novel experience a gradual process of estrangement from the ideals of Francisco Franco’s Spain. The aim of this work is to reread the text according to this point of view, underlining how the author deals with the theme of the flight as a way to project oneself towards a new vital dimension that all the characters seem to desire.
Clara Foppa Pedretti, In fuga dalla tirannia, dall’odio e dal perdono: Urania Cabral in La fiesta del Chivo di Mario Vargas Llosa
Rafael Trujillo is known as one of the most vicious and ruthless dictators to have afflicted Latin America. His regime, which for thirty-one years oppressed Dominican people, came to an end on the day of his assassination, the 30th of May of 1961. In 2000, Mario Vargas Llosa published La Fiesta del Chivo, a novel that recounts the last fifteen days of the Dominican despot. The protagonist of the work, Urania, is the daughter of Agustín Cabral, one of the senators of Trujillo. After more than thirty years in the United States, she returns to Santo Domingo. Through her story we learn of the barbaric violence and bitter betrayal that led her to flee from an indelible and incurable sorrow, which will mark her existence. This paper aims at analyzing how Urania’s escapes are, at different times, both a separation and a rapprochement with her life and origins in the constant search for truth.
The essay deals with Montale’s reading of Rimbaud. It carries out a comparative analysis of two narrative long poems written by the authors in their youth: Mediterraneo (1925) and Bateau ivre (1883). Both poems deal with the relationship between the poet and the sea and represent the sea as an allegory of language and of poetry. They have a similar structure, that of a Bildungsroman, but their endings are opposite. There are in Mediterraneo several allusions to the Bateau ivre suggesting that Montale is refusing and going beyond the idea of man and of poetry which underpins Symbolism.
Federica Locatelli, Des lignes de fuite vers le moi : Henri Michaux
Since the very beginning, Henri Michaux’s poetry has investigated the topic of being, namely its definition, its extent and its boundaries, through the instrument of writing. According to the poet’s vision, human being is “multiple, complexe et d’ailleurs fuyant”; as a consequence, poetry, whose main objective is “questionner, ausculter, approcher le problème de l’être” (Passages), cannot but witness this protean and elusive tendency. Therefore, in the context of a poetic production focused on the theme of the escape, the self, “[qui] est et se voudrait ailleurs, essentiellement autre”, shall overflow its physical and linguistic boundaries, dissolving into many “lignes de fuite”/ “convergence lines” (Deleuze-Guattari), which represent the real issue treated in Michaux’s poetry. As we hope to demonstrate by the analysis of some pages of Plume, La Vie dans les plis, Face aux verrous, the escape and moving of the self, including its body and identity, are not the result of arbitrary imaginative work, but the most suitable poetic strategy allowing the reader to grasp the real objective of art, that is to say the inexhaustible longing for self-understanding, as well as understanding of others.
Franco Lonati, Un’anabasi metropolitana. The Warriors di Sol Yurick
Escape is one of the narrative and stylistic elements on which noir fiction – one of the distinctive genres of 20th century American literature – is based. My paper focuses on an example of modern and atypical noir fiction, a virtually unknown novel written by Sol Yurick and titled The Warriors, whose film adaptation, paradoxically enough, has come to further obscure it. The novel, treading the same path as authors like David Goodis and Dorothy Hughes, centres around an escape (both physical and metaphorical), but it departs from standard practice in the characteristics, motives and meanings that the escape assumes over the course of narration. These peculiar characteristics are the subject of my paper.
Rocco Marseglia, OEdipe, un héros en fuite
This paper aims to highlight the various ‘escapes’ marking the various moments of Oedipus’ mythological story as it arises in Oedipus Rex by Sophocles. T x hough Laius has pierced his son’s feet in order to prevent him from escaping, Oedipus arrives in Corinth; after he discovering that he is not Polybus’ real child, he resumes his escape and arrives in Thebes, his true homeland. Here, he will see the truth and flee into exile. Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex stages this Theban stay of Oedipus, closed between two parallel escapes.
In January 1946 the German writer Marie Luise Kaschnitz published the essay Von der Schuld (On Guilt) on the journal Die Wandlung (The Change). In this essay, several months after the end of the war, she replies to the charges made against the German people of having allowed the Nazi to drag the whole world into the Second World War. Kaschnitz’s essay is a neglected document of the still unfinished debate around the guilt of those Germans who did not take position against Adolf Hitler. The text does not merely serve as evidence for accusing or acquitting the writer and those who, like her, called themselves cowards for not having spoken against the regime; it rather allows for the understanding of the causes of the Innere Emigration, a phenomenon caused by the paralyzing power of the regime of terror that hindered for most people the opportunity to flee, including towards their own conscience.
This essay deals with the theoretical treatment of slave narratives written by women through an overview of the recent critical debate on this topic. It then considers two texts, Harriet Jacob’s Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl: Written by Herself f published in 1861 and Toni Morrison’s Beloved published in 1987, both exemplary texts respectively of the autobiographical writing by slave women and of the ‘neo-slave narrative’, contemporary novels where the historical phenomenon of slavery still deeply influences contemporary society. Neo-slave narratives profoundly differ from slave narratives being the former fictional renditions and the latter autobiographical accounts of supposedly true events. Their differences notwithstanding, neo-slave narratives testify to the unending vitality of one of the first and most influential traditions in African American literature and culture, and to the centrality that the history and the memory of slavery still have in molding the United States.
Daniela Pagani, Fuga da Israele – Il caso dello scrittore Eshkol Nevo
In The yiddish policemen’s union, Michael Chabon imagines a world without Israel, where Jewish people have established a state in Alaska; Aharon Appelfeld in his last novel The boy who wanted to sleep, faces the theme of settling in a new homeland; Philip Roth, in a beautifully absurd book, tells about his alter ego who arrives in Jerusalem to promote a diaspora project, which consists in forcing Jewish people to leave Palestine. Eshkol Nevo, one of the most authentic voices of new Jewish fiction, in a kind of epic story, Neuland, dreams about a tiny Jewish City of the sun in South America: “My characters are trapped in the same way that their own country is trapped. Going away sets them free”. An analysis of how poetic creation is able to celebrate what could have been if things would have had the strength to go differently.
Rosa Pignataro, La fuga dell’‘Io’ narrativo nel romanzo del dopoguerra spagnolo
My contribution arises from the attempt to analyse some of the most significant novels of the Spanish post-war, since the 1940s until the 1960s-‘70s. In particular, I analyze the ‘escape’ of the ‘self ’ from the narration. The works studied are: La familia de Pascual Duarte and La Colmena by Camilo José Cela, El camino by Miguel Delibes, andVolverás a Región by Juan Benet.The first of the novels in question is marked by the presence of a strong and pervasive Yo, Pascual’s narration represents the roundness of the autobiography. The ‘escape’, the breakup till the total rupture of the narrative pact between author and reader, becomes a reality with a novel of the next decade, El camino, in which an omniscient narrator filters the autobiographical experience through the eyes of children. The next step is the infinite multiplication of the representation of the self in a mosaic repetition of narrative voices and characters in La Colmena. The escape of the ego reaches the full realization with the novel Volverás a Región that stigmatizes the total anonymity of narration given by an omniscient narrator who, breaking the rules of the traditional narrative, introduces the reader in an undefined space where the ‘I’ floats and reveals what the characters say and feel but confusing names and events to prove the condition of ruin of human existence.
In Le Avventure di Pinocchio, three episodes deserve special attention, for they open and close the puppet’s story: the flight from his father at the beginning of the book (chapter III), the flight from the murderers, which ends the part published in 1881 in the “Giornale per i bambini” (chapters XIV-XV) and, finally, the flight from the Shark, which marks the end of the final version of the work, published in 1883 by Paggi (chapters XXXV-XXXVI). The analysis has enabled to point out how the relationship reason-instinct marks an evolution in Pinocchio’s modes of flight, leaving unaltered, however, the fundamental structure. The mechanism of both endings is organized according to a closed form, that, having death as a starting point and as an outcome, poses itself as an alternative to the character growing up.
Francesco Rognoni, Fuga in Franciacorta. Alessandro Spina e Joseph Conrad
The essay is a survey of the works of Alessandro Spina (1927-2013), undoubtly the most important postcolonial Italian novelist, emphasizing his lifelong ‘dialogue’ with Joseph Conrad’s works. The theme of ‘flight’ or ‘escape’, present everywhere in the novels (and in the lives) of both authors, is a leitmotif of the article. Almost paradoxically, Conrad’s best known structural feature (his use of the character-narrator) is shown to be more recognizable in those novels of Spina’s that take place in Italy, among the upper bourgeoisie, than those belonging to his ‘African cycle’.
Stefano Rosso, Note sulla fuga (e sull’inseguimento) nel western americano
As it is well known, the escape motif is typical of American fiction, but acquires a clear and formulaic centrality in the Western genre. However, particularly after WWII, this apparently conservative genre, has produced some narratives in which the ideology of the American Dream is radically questioned. This short essay highlights the revisionistic move of some Western novelists such as Elmore Leonard, Charles Portis and others, who followed their example.
Benedetta Saglietti, Ritiro dalle scene, fuga per quartetto vocale, radio contrappuntistica: fugue ed escape in Glenn Gould
The pianist Glenn Gould quit the concert stage at the peak of his career (1964). At the same time he composed So you want to write a fugue?, for four-part chorus of mixed voices with strings (or piano) accompaniment, a sort of ironic hyperbole that makes fun of ‘classical’ western music. Then Gould invented ‘contrapuntal radio’ in which independent voices are intertwined without any thematic elaboration. In 1967 the ‘docudrama’ The Idea of North opened The Solitude Trilogy. Gould, hidden behind radio editing, transfigured his personal escape in radio art. Using the writings of Gould, some of which have never been translated into Italian, the discussion of So you want to write a fugue? and The Idea of North, I would like to clarify how the escape from the world of Gould has been refined through the fugue and counterpoint.
Giulio Segato, Fleeing War. Due strategie di diserzione letteraria:I parenti del Sud di Carlo Montella e Going After Cacciato di Tim O’Brien
This paper investigates two kinds of desertions represented in two war novels: Carlo Montella’s I parenti del Sud and Tim O’Brien’s Going After Cacciato. I claim that the desertions described in these novels are directly linked with the specific war that is the backdrop of the book. The hero of I parenti del sud, still confused by Fascist ideology, deserts and runs away to a relative’s house in order to clear his head. Instead, in Going After Cacciato the protagonist’s desertion seems to have the same grotesque and bizarre traits of the background conflict: The Vietnam War.
Davide Vago, Proust, fuir l’oralité pour trouver un accent
Proust has always asserted that salon conversation is incompatible with the noiseless shrine where a writer devotes himself to literature. Nonetheless, the more Proust confines himself in his cork-lined room to escape the transient voices of the world, the more ‘orality’ emerges from his writing as the equivalent not of ‘voice’, but rather of ‘accent’. In this paper I investigate this paradox by examining the episode concerning Bergotte’s voice, which seems so eccentric to the narrator.
Everyone knows that Proust’s Recherche is the history of an artistic vocation, the history of a quest of truth. Truth, however, is not easily found and hides itself away. The novel’s hero hides himself, he flees during three thousand pages to avoid facing his artistic mission. This article aims to analyse this flight and it is structured in three parts: the flight of friendship, the flight of love and the flight from literature, Marcel’s final attempt to indulge in divertissement, wasting the true time of beauty for urbane life. Only when sorrow and mourning lead him to the obscurity of the self, can the novel’s hero take upon himself his artistic duty. In effect, if Albertine is the Fugitive, if it is she who physically disappears, it is Marcel who keeps on fleeing in his uninterrupted ‘fugue’, in the double meaning of ‘flight’ and of “a contrapuntal composition in which a short melody or phrase is introduced by one part and successively taken up by others and developed by interweaving the parts”. This last meaning is only possible in the night of sorrow and in the desert of absence.
Dans ce numéro:
J. Rock – D. Puato – M. F. Bonadonna – N. Stoyanova – M. Di Salvo – L. Mor – M. Diez – M. Verna e M. Calusio – G. Gobber – E. Galazzi e C.Molinari – M. Ulrych e A. Murphy – A. Bonola – F. Missaglia