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Dans ce numéro :
Guy Achard-Bayle| Véronique Magri | Alberto Bramati | Alain Guyot | Abdelmajid Senhadji El Hamchaoui | Małgorzata Sokołowicz | Isabelle Le Pape | Stefana Squatrito | Odile Gannier | Élisabeth Richard et Intareeya Leekancha | Stéphane André
Variations et répétitions dans le récit de voyage
Dirigé par Véronique Magri et Odile Gannier
Approche linguistique et stylistique
Dans le cadre théorique de la perspective fonctionnelle de la phrase, hérité de l’École de Prague, nous étudions les procédures et les marques de la répétition et de la reformulation dans l’Histoire d’un voyage faict en la terre du Bresil de Jean de L l éry, récit de voyage et de « découverte » de la fin du XVIème siècle. Aux plans référentiel et descriptif, se pose le problème de la représentation textuelle de réalités « étrangères » au moyen de « nos » outils linguistiques.
Within the theoretical framework of the functional sentence perspective (FSP), inherited from the Prague School we propose a study of the procedures and the marks of repetitions in the Jean de Léry’s travelogue: Histoire d’un voyage faict en la terre du Bresil – a story of discovery written in the late sixteenth century. At the referential and descriptive levels, the representation of “foreign” realities poses a major problem: how to “grasp” them by means of “our” linguistic tools?
Keywords: Repetition, variation, reformulation, denomination, identity, alterity, hybridity
Paraphrase reformulative et périphrase servent le processus de nomination du référent par une opération de substitution extensive, saisie à un point différent de sa réalisation. La paraphrase propose la substitution, la périphrase l’impose. La reformulation du nom commun exogène joue sur des deux processus. Celle du nom propre de lieux équivaut à l’antonomase. La paraphrase propose une reformulation alternative ; la périphrase remplace le terme exogène par un énoncé assurant la désignation directe. L’antonomase désigne l’objet du monde exogène par l’emploi d’un nom propre lui-même reformulé.
Reformulative paraphrase and periphrase serve the process of appointing the referent by an extensive substitution operation, entered at a different point from its execution. The paraphrase proposes substitution, the periphrase imposes it. The reformulation of the exogenous common name plays on both processes. The one of the proper name of places is equivalent to the antonomasia. The paraphrase proposes an alternative reformulation; the periphrase replaces the exogenous term with a statement ensuring direct designation. Antonomasia refers to the object of the exogenous world through the use of a reformulated proper name.
Keywords: Travel narrative, reformulation, antonomasia
Cet article est divisé en trois parties : dans la première partie, nous présentons les procédés narratologiques du roman ; dans la deuxième partie, nous analysons la fonction des répétitions, des polyptotes et des dérivations, en comparant le texte original avec la traduction italienne de Montini ; dans la dernière partie, nous exposons les problèmes lexicaux, grammaticaux et d’euphonie qui, dans quelques cas, semblent expliquer l’effacement de certaines répétitions dans le texte cible.
This article is divided into three parts: in the first part, we present the narratological processes of the novel; in the second part, we analyze the function of repetitions, polyptotes and derivations, comparing the original text with Montini’s Italian translation; in the last part, we expose the lexical, grammatical and euphonic problems that, in some cases, seem to explain the erasing of certain repetitions in the target text.
Keywords: Travel literature, repetitions, polyptotes, derivations, French-Italian translation
Que signifient les répétitions et les variations sur un même motif chez un auteur de récits de voyage ? Cette question est examinée à la lumière des descriptions de la caverne de l’Arveyron, en vallée de Chamonix, données par le Genevois Bourrit (1739-1819), auteur d’une dizaine de publications consacrées aux Alpes et qui relèvent de sous-genres variés du récit viatique : descriptions, récits d’excursions ou d’expéditions, guides de voyage, etc. What do repetitions and variations on a same pattern mean for an author of travelogues?
This question is considered in light of the descriptions of the Arveyron cave, in the Chamonix valley, given by Bourrit (1739-1819), native of Geneva and author of about 10 publications on the Alps which are belonging to various travelogue subgenres: descriptions, excursion or expedition accounts, travel guides, etc.
Keywords: Travelogue, literary reception, Alps, description
Le récit de voyage d’ambassade au Maroc est essentiellement stéréotypé. En sélectionnant dans ces récits la description du Sultan du Maroc Hassan Ier vers la fin du XIXe siècle, à un moment fort de l’audience royale, chez quelques voyageurs européens contemporains, les Français Pierre Loti et Gabriel Charmes, l’Italien Edmondo De Amicis, le Belge Edmond Picard, nous essaierons d’examiner comment chaque auteur a repris le topos du Sultan. Nous allons envisager les textes du point de vue sémantique et contextuel pour étudier le fonctionnement et le rôle de la description itérative du Sultan. En jouant sur la répétition des mêmes traits modulés du portrait ainsi que les stratégies narratives et discursives, le narrateur cherche-t-il à créer une dynamique textuelle ou à susciter une reconnaissance chez le lecteur ? Pour répondre à cette question, il convient de faire une étude stylistique des fragments textuels sélectionnés pour mettre en lumière les stratégies mises en jeu par chaque auteur pour représenter le même : comment le voyageur peut-il affirmer son originalité tout en étant contraint à la répétition ou à la reformulation?
The embassy travel narrative in Morocco is essentially stereotyped. By selecting in these stories the description of the Sultan of Morocco Hassan I in the late nineteenth century, at a high point of the royal audience, among some contemporary European travelers, the French Pierre Loti and Gabriel Charmes, the Italian Edmondo De Amicis, the Belgian Edmond Picard, we will try to examine how each author took over the topos of the Sultan. We will consider the texts from the semantic and contextual point of view to study the functioning and the role of the iterative description of the Sultan. By playing on the repetition of the same modulated features of the portrait as well as the narrative and discursive strategies, does the narrator seek to create a textual dynamic or to elicit recognition from the reader? To answer this question, it is advisable to make a stylistic study of the textual fragments selected to highlight the strategies put into play by each author to represent the same: how can the traveler affirm his originality while being forced to repetition or reformulation?
Keywords: Travel narrative, Sultan, description, repetition, reformulation
Małgorzata Sokołowicz «C’est au soleil couchant qu’il faut voir les pyramides». Les images solaires récurrentes dans le Voyage en Orient de Gustave Flaubert
L’article analyse les images solaires récurrentes dans la partie égyptienne du Voyage en Orient de Gustave Flaubert. La première partie présente la fréquence des images solaires et la contraste avec l’attitude de Flaubert envers la répétition. La deuxième essaie de classifier les contextes dans lesquels le soleil apparaît dans les notes de voyage et la dernière analyse quelques descriptions de couchers de soleil pour montrer comment Flaubert les construit.
The present paper ana lyses the recurrent images of the sun in the Egyptian part of the Voyage en Orient by Gustave Flaubert. The first part shows the frequency of the solar images used by the writer and contrasts it with his attitude towards repetition. The second tries to categorise the contexts where the sun appears and the last one analyses some sunsets’ descriptions and shows how Flaubert builds them.
Keywords: Flaubert, Oriental travel, sun, repetition
Si la première visite d’Henry James à Venise, en septembre 1869, ne ressemble ni à un coup de coeur, ni à une révélation, l’auteur américain ne cessera d’y revenir et accordera une place majeure à cette ville dans plusieurs de ses oeuvres. En confrontant les répétitions présentes dans les romans et nouvelles à d’autres écrits provenant de sa correspondance, nous verrons comment la représentation de Venise, qui constitue à la fin du XIXe siècle un mythe pour d’autres écrivains voyageurs, véritable « laboratoire », permet à l’auteur de transfigurer le réel tout en modulant ses souvenirs.
No doubt that the first impression of Venice wasn’t a pleasant discovery for the young Henry James in September 1869. Meanwhile, the American author will return several times and will give the Italian town a major place in many works. By considering the repetitions in his novels and short stories in relation to other writings from his correspondence, we will examine how Venice is described as a myth for the travelling writers from the end of the nineteenth century and as a “laboratory” which allows James to transfigure the reality while modulating his memories.
Keywords: Myth, remembrance, variation, travel
Restée longtemps marginale dans les itinéraires traditionnels des voyages en Italie, c’est à partir de la moitié du XVIIIe siècle que la Sicile entra dans les circuits du Grand Tour. Mais l’image de cette île à la fois sauvage et pittoresque montrée par les premiers voyageurs s’était bientôt figée et stéréotypée. Cet article se propose d’analyser la vision de la Sicile dans les Souvenirs du Comte de Forbin. Une vision qui se dit objective mais qui cède elle aussi à l’itération des contenus et des images.
Remained marginal for a long time compared to the typical itinerary of Italian travels, it was from the mid-eighteenth century that Sicily entered the Grand tour itineraries. The vision of this island, both wild and picturesque, had gradually become fixed and stereotyped. This article aims to analyze the image of Sicily in the Count of Forbin’s Souvenirs. A vision that defines itself as objective but that soon borders on the interaction of contents and images.
Keywords: Auguste de Forbin, travel literature, Souvenirs de la Sicile, picturesque
Le journal de bord comme obligation de métier pourrait paraître parfaitement ennuyeux et fastidieux, car il impose par nature la répétition contrainte, heure par heure, jour après jour, avec un vocabulaire très précis qu’il est impossible de varier ; cependant, le journal peut se jouer de l’obligation et fournir un schéma intéressant du point de vue narratologique, ce que prouve son utilisation comme modèle dans la fiction et sa consécration par le pastiche.
The logbook as a professional obligation could seem completely boring and tedious, because it is by nature under the constraint of repetition, every hour, all day long, with a very precise vocabulary that is impossible to vary; however, the logbook can play with the obligation and be interesting from a narratological point of view: it is used as a model by the fiction and is even parodied.
Keywords: Logbook, repetition, anaphora, constraint
L’article interroge la notion de répétition entendue comme le retour à l’identique du même item lexical au regard d’un corpus original constitué de 157 récits de v l oyage en ligne. Tantôt narration, tantôt description ; accumulation ou inventaire ; haut degré ou multiplication, la répétition est partout à l’oeuvre dans le récit de voyage : elle est autant un indice de son élaboration formelle, de son architecture, qu’elle est signal des changements de points de vue du locuteur.
The article questions the notion of repetition defined as the identical return of the same lexical item with regard to an original corpus made up of 157 online travel narratives: sometimes taking on the form of a story or a description; accumulation or inventory; high degree or multiplication, repetition is at work everywhere in the travel narrative: it is as much an indication of its formal elaboration, of its architecture, as it is a signal of changes in the speaker’s point of view.
Keywords: Repetition, travel narratives, reformulation, enunciation
Dans le roman Oreille rouge qu’il fait paraître en 2005, l’écrivain e Éric Chevillard s’inspire d’un séjour au Mali pour mieux subvertir tous les attendus du récit de voyage. Dans cette entreprise déconstructiviste, l’auteur utilise la répétition pour tourner en dérision les obsessions de l’« écrivain voyageur », pour dénoncer sa prétention à restituer la complexité de la réalité africaine et pour mettre à mal la vision stéréotypée qu’il voudrait en donner.
In his novel Oreille rouge published in 2005, the french writer Éric Chevillard draws on a trip to Mali to better subvert all the codes of a travel story. In this deconstructivist project, the author uses repetition to deride the obsessions of the “traveller writer”, to denounce his claim to restore the complexity of the African reality and to undermine the stereotyped vision he would like to give.
Keywords: Repetition, novel, travel literature, Africa
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Dans ce numéro :
Alberto Maria Langella| Patrizio Malloggi | Nazarena Fazzari | Victoria Bogushevskaya | Riva Evstifeeva | Jacopo Saturno | Manuela Pavone | Diego Sirico | Renato Rizzoli | Federica Perazzini | Riccardo Gramantieri | Daniela Puolato
This article aims at showing an application of Zellig Sabbettai Harris’ operator grammar to the description of Italian syntax. Zellig S. Harris started to develop his mathematical conception of natural language at the end of the forties starting from a distributionalist approach and culminating in a very personal method of formal investigation of natural language. The first paragraph is an introduction to the article with a theoretical justification of the formal perspective adopted, the second paragraph deals with the inspiring concepts of a harrisian grammar or rather the basic constraints which determine the creation of mathematical structures inside language. In the third paragraph I discuss in detail the concept of operator and the typology of harrisian operators.
Keywords: operator, argument, constraints, information, mathematical structure
In traditional grammars, words are grouped into word classes according to various criteria. Classifications are based on syntactic, morphological and semantic criteria (Glinz 1968; Ehlich 2007, p. 51ff.). Nevertheless, some words are difficult to classify into a category, as consequence of idiosyncratic characteristics, for example ab, seit, von in German. These words can be considered as syntactic “Einzelgänger” (Pasch et al. 2003, p. 584ff.) since they show the syntactic behaviour of prepositions with dative as well as of pre-adverbs. In this paper the aim is to investigate the syntactic behaviour of ab, seit, von as pre-adverbs so that this word class can be included among the canonical word classes (see Duden 2006) on the basis of which the lexical items of the German language can be classified.
Keywords: word class classification, Einzelgänger, preposition, pre-adverb, adverbial complement
On the basis of a spoken corpus we built during field research conducted in Langfang (Hebei), in 2017, through 30 semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample, we verified the role of homophony today in gift exchange in China from a sociolinguistic perspective.
Keywords: gift exchange, homophony, instrumental gifts, expressive gifts, Modern Standard Chinese, liwu jiaohuan 礼物交换
Victoria Bogushevskaya | Formal theory-driven, psycholinguistic data and corpus-driven study confirms the absence of a basic colour term for ORANGE in Modern Standard Mandarin and elaborates the syntaxico-semantic ‘distributional potential’ criterion for basicness
This paper deploys formal, experimental, and corpus-based evidence to demonstrate that, despite being psychologically salient in Modern Standard Mandarin, orange is not yet encoded by a monomorphemic monosyllabic single-character colour term, and the possible candidates do not possess the entire set of the criteria to become ‘basic’. It also suggests an additional analysis of the syntaxico-semantic ‘distributional potential’ criterion, which is a precondition for colour terms’ basicness.
Keywords: basic colour term, colour naming, mnemonic, chì-chéng-huáng-lü-qīng-lán-zi
The article offers a contribution to the knowledge of S. Volchkov’s translation methods. Sergej Volchkov was one of the most prolific translators of the XVIII century related to the Academy of Sciences. In his Vojazhirov leksikon he added Russian definitions to the French-German-Latin part of the Nouveau Dictionnaire du Voyageur. In this article we provide a brief characteristic of Volchkov’s approach in his work on the dictionary and then analyse a selection of lemmas. The selection includes the terms that describe the intellectual qualities of a man, so to compare VL to Volchkov’s most renown translation, Pridvornoj chelovek (from Gracián’s Oráculo manual).
Keywords: translation studies, Volchkov, XVIIIth cent.
The paper describes the acquisition of L2 Russian by Italian volunteers hosting Russian-speaking children for humanitarian purposes. The focus is on an oral comprehension and production task, whose results show that alongside traces of inflectional morphology, production is mostly based on the juxtaposition of topic and comment. Performance is superior in production than comprehension, which is explained in terms of input and motivation. Didactic and acquisitional implications are discussed.
Keywords: L2 Russian, L2 for special purposes, initial SLA, input, utterance structure
Diego Sirico | Students’ Perceptions and Attitudes on the Use of Literature as a Tool for Learning English as a Foreign Language
Considering the lack of studies to support the theories regarding the advantages of integrating literature into language classes, our aim is to investigate the upsides of the use of literature in TEFL through empirical research. After teaching a set of lessons focused on three literary genres, we try to find out whether students’ views towards the use of literature in EFL classes change and which genre pupils perceive as the most beneficial. As for the quantitative research, we make use of a statistical survey through paired t-tests, effect size and ANOVA, while for the qualitative research, we try to uncover what underpins students’ viewpoints. Pupils’ feedback proves that literature can be a motivating and valuable source in developing linguistic and transversal competences.
Keywords: students’ perspective, literature in EFL classes, literary genres, quantitative and qualitative analysis
By drawing upon J.G.A. Pocock’s studies on the Financial Revolution and its controversial reception in contemporary debate, the essay analyses three plays (Shadwell’s The Volunteers, Taverner’s The Female Advocates, and Chetwood’s The Stock-Jobbers), whose main theme is credit and tries to demonstrate that, behind its moralistic condemnation, there are ambiguities and contradictions that replicate the instability of the public debate.
Keywords: comedy, financial revolution, credit, speculation, representation, the return of the repressed
The article focuses on the relationship between clothing and Bildung in the characterization of the protagonist of Dickens’s controversial Bildungsroman Great Expectations. The correlation between dynamics of self-representation and class performance will be analysed in terms of display and adherence to specific standards of rules, values and dress codes that aim to guarantee characters’ acquisition of the elusive status of gentleman they aspire to.
Keywords: Abito, Bildung, Gentiluomo, Great Expectations, Parvenu
In 1960s American writer William Burroughs used a literary composition technique which he called ‘cut-up’. That method consisted in destructuring several literary sources, and reassembling them to form new texts with similar or new meanings. The ‘cut-up’ has some similarities with the concept of bionian transformation, which describes the change produced during the analytic situation that transforms a patient’s and the analyst’s previous mental condition into a new psychic condition.
Keywords: Wilfred R. Bion, William S. Burroughs, Cut-up, Funzione alfa, Trasformazioni
Dans cette contribution, l’étude de la variation syntaxique, observée dans différents types de texte, et l’intérêt pour la variation stylistique s’entrecroisent dans une dimension de contact juridico-littéraire. L’alternance présence/absence du pronom personnel sujet dans des textes remontant au moyen français est analysée dans une perspective quantitative, en tant que phénomène évolutif et stratégie narrative possible. Une attention particulière est réservée à la première personne.
Keywords: Middle French, subject personal pronouns, legal field, literary field
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Dans ce numéro :
Maurizia Calusio | Valentina Noseda| Elda Garetto e Sara Mazzucchelli | Ornella Discacciati | Adriano Dell’Asta | Giuseppe Ghini | Sergio Rapetti
Elda Garetto e Sara Mazzucchelli | Le prime edizioni italiane di Solženicyn nei documenti degli archivi editoriali
The essay presents the results of a research carried out at Mondadori, Saggiatore and Einaudi archives on the first editions of Solženicyn’s novels during the 60-ies. The analysis of the correspondences amongst Italian publishers, literary critics, representatives of literary agencies and translators aims at illustrating an emblematic case study about the dissemination of the Soviet dissident literature in Italy.
Keywords: Solzhenitsyn, Italian publishing houses, archives, translation studies
The paper retraces the debate, in the periodicals of the Italian Left, between the poets Franco Fortini and Giovanni Giudici, following the publication of One day in the life of Ivan Denisovič and Matryona’s House, and in which the Slavist Vittorio Strada took part. This lively dialogue with three voices, very different from each other although all with a Marxist imprint, is undoubtedly the most remarkable outcome of the reading of Aleksandr Solženicyn in Italy, when he was still considered a socialist and a Soviet author.
Keywords: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Franco Fortini, Giovanni Giudici, Vittorio Strada, reception studies, One day in the life of Ivan Denisovič
The article contextualizes the publication of the story by A. Solzhenitsyn The House of Matrëna focusing on affinities and differences with the works of the so-called “village prose”. After reconstructing the evolution of the “peasant prose” as a specific phenomenon that emerged in the second half of the 1950s, in the article are identified the reasons that prevent Solženicyn’s story from being included in the derevenshchiki works.
Keywords: Solzhenitsyn, Thaw’s Literature, Village prose, Literary controversies, Socialist Realism
The publication of The Gulag Archipelago, despite its clearly political nature, made it possible to overcome a reductively political dimension regarding totalitarianism. The case of France was particularly significant in this sense also thanks to the interpretation of C. Lefort: once the logic of propaganda had been overcome and Solzhenitsyn’s work had been returned to literature, the essence of ideology was rediscovered as a form of thought that first and foremost denied the human factor.
Keywords: Solzhenitsyn, Lefort, totalitarianism, ideology, literature
The essay deals with the influence of the Russian writer Solzhenitsyn on the novelist and painter Michael O’Brien. The influence is to be traced above all in the prophetic mission of the writer, which is to be in service to the truth. Secondly the relation between the two authors is analysed through the quotations from Solzhenitsyn in the essayistic and literary work by Michael O’Brien. That analysis is focused on the constant presence of Cancer Ward within The father’s tale, where the characters and the stories told by Solzhenitsyn become constant element of comparison between the two.
Keywords: Michael D. O’Brien, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Solzhenitsyn’s legacy
The essay describes Solzhenitsyn’s journey through his searing debut novel in 1962, accounting horrific events of war, imprisonment and illness, which matured him as a person and a writer. This led him to discover his people and culture, and to devote his life and work to them, even after his expulsion and during his exile. The essay follows these developments with particular regard to the “truthful word”, which Solzhenitsyn tried to abide to in his literary work and life. He also proposed this principle upon his return to Russia in 1994 to aid the moral healing of the “new Russia” that had gone through the disaster of the Soviet era. The whole story is recalled by an Italian translator who has translated many of his works over the last forty years.
Keywords: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, literary translation, gulag literature
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In this Issue:
Sonia Bailini | Cristiano Furiassi | Maurizia Calusio | Silvia Gilardoni | Elena Bulygina | Tat’jana Tripol’skaja | Anna Krasnikova | Valentina Noseda | Natalja Stoyanova | Sarah Bigi | Nazarena Fazzari | Chiara Piccinini | Claudia Alborghetti | Laura Anelli | Gloria Colombo | Piet van de Craen
Sonia Bailini (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore – Milano) | L’umorismo nella traduzione in spagnolo de Il gioco delle tre carte di Marco Malvaldi
The aim of this paper is to observe how the humorous effect has been translated in the Spanish version of the novel Il gioco delle tre carte (2008) by Marco Malvaldi. The article is organised in three parts: in the first one, the theoretical framework for the translation of humour is outlined, in the second one the types of humour that characterize Malvaldi’s texts are illustrated and in the third one the translation techniques used to maintain the humorous effect of the original text are analysed.
Keywords: Humour translation, Italian-Spanish translation, Marco Malvaldi
Cristiano Furiassi (Università degli Studi di Torino) | “Drink wine, not labels”: A lexicologist’s insight into ‘Super Tuscans’
Following an overview of Super Tuscan wines, this study aims at providing a definition of the pseudo-Anglicism ‘Super Tuscan’. In addition, by resorting to lexicographic and corpus data, the frequency of ‘Super Tuscan’ is measured, its spelling variants are traced and the date of first attestation in both Italian and English is determined. Finally, this article considers whether the term ‘Super Tuscan’ might have turned, via de-terminologization, into a word also known and used by non-connoisseurs.
Keywords: corpora, dictionaries, false Anglicisms, ‘Super Tuscan’, wine terminology
Elena Bulygina – Tat’jana Tripol’skaja (Novosibirskij Gosudarstvennyj Pedagogičeskij Universitet)| Толковый словарь как манипулятивный текст
The purpose of the article is to study the Russian explanatory dictionaries of the twentieth cen- tury as a mechanism for reflecting and forming a picture of the world, ideologically verified and demanded by the country’s political power. Reflection of the political realities of the Soviet era, axiological accents, the hard border between “their” and “alien” – this is an incomplete list of tasks, the solution of which was assigned to dictionaries. Distortion of information is carried out in the following ways; 1) the concealment of individual facts; 2) the regrouping of informa- tion in order of importance, violating the logic and history of language development; 3) silence of some facts and the nomination of others; 4) repeated repetitions of ideological clichés; 5) fragmentation, that is, the representation of a fragment taken out of context that distorts the content of the whole.
Keywords: lexicography, manipulation, ideological component, evaluation semantics
Anna Krasnikova (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)| La manipolazione nell’editoria sovietica: il caso di Il’ja Sel’vinskij
The paper categorizes the most common forms of manipulation in Soviet publishing and presents a new material: the biography and the works of Ilya Selvinsky, a poet who systematically modified his already published texts, the fact that greatly and negatively influenced his literary destiny.
Keywords: manipulation in Soviet publishing, Ilya Selvinsky, Soviet literature, editors and editing, rewriting
Valentina Noseda (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | Processi manipolativi nella Russia post-sovietica: verso la creazione di una nuova immagine del nemico
Like in the past, the image of the enemy is used in today’s Russia to justify some government behaviour and manipulate citizens, obtaining their consent. This also occurs thanks to the role of a strong and persuasive leader such as the current President of the Russian Federation. In this work some of his speeches are analysed considering the following manipulative processes: presupposition violation, emotional language, metaphors and different types of fallacies. The analysis will allow us to define the features of a new image of the enemy which has emerged in post-soviet Russia.
Keywords: manipulation, propaganda, image of the enemy, fallacies, speech analysis
Nataliya Stoyanova (Università degli Studi di Milano) | La manipolazione nascosta nei segnali discorsivi ведь e же usati come attivatori di presupposizione
In this paper, we first of all clarify what is meant by manipulation from the point of view of linguistic theory, both in the Russian and in the Western traditions. Then we present some linguistic mechanisms that can convey manipulation, paying a particular attention to presupposition. Later we consider different presuppositional typologies and definitions, highlighting the function of the presupposition triggers. Finally, two Russian discourse markers, ведь and же, are analyzed through the National Russian Language Corpus (NKRJa), and a clear distinction between them is drawn, concerning their ability to convey the hidden manipulation.
Keywords: discourse markers, presupposition trigger, manipulation, Russian language, corpus analysis
Sarah Bigi (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | Parola corrotta e cura della parola: c’è scampo dalla dinamica manipolatoria?
Recently, frequent inappropriate uses of language in public discourse have been observed that remind of what the literature has often called ‘manipulation strategies’. Thus, scholars have started again di- scussing about what fosters the success of manipulation. This paper originates from the question about the possibility of identifying manipulation in the ‘here and now’ of interaction, and not only after its negative consequences have taken place. After a brief discussion of the literature on manipulation, the paper discusses the possibility of putting in place preventive and defensive strategies against manipula- tive intentions and uses of language.
Keywords: strategie manipolatorie, analisi del discorso, deliberazione
Nazarena Fazzari (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | La censura in Cina e il modello del Genitore Premuroso: analisi di un corpus
This paper analyzes the documents issued by Sarft (State Administration of Radio, Film and Television) on the management of content and language in the media in the Hu Jintao Era, in order to verify which family model of Chinese government is proposed according to Lakoff theory. We argue that the image proposed is the one of the Nurturant Father.
Keywords: Lakoff, censorship in China, political discourse, Nurturant Father, corpus linguistics
Chiara Piccinini (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | Le domande orientate e retoriche in cinese: strumento persuasivo o manipolatorio?
Rhetorical questions (fănwènjù 反问句) in Chinese language are used in communicative contexts to emphasize a sentence and convince an interlocutor of the speaker’s point of view.
Li and Thompson (1984) e Liu Yuehua et al. (2001), among other linguists, distinguish between yes/ no questions and rhetorical questions: the first are sentences occurring in a negative interrogative form (不是……吗? bú shì... ma? “isn’t it true that…?”) that underlie an utterance based on the common point of view of interlocutors, or that starts either from common knowledge or from an evidence; rhetorical questions, on the other way, are formed by interrogative pronouns and modal particles, such as 呢 ne 啊 a, occurring at the end of the utterance (i.e.: 他怎么知道呢? tā zěnme zhīdao ne? “How does he know that?”) and underlying an opposite semantic value to that expressed by interrogative pronouns, that emphasizes that value.
These interrogative sentences, both yes/no questions and rhetorical ones, are widely employed as rhetorical means of persuasion. In my contribution I would like to concentrate on the observation of some of these sentences as they occur in two corpora: one of them contains conversations registered in a class of Chinese language teaching to Italian learners and the second recorded in Taiwan, containing radio conversations on a subject of common interest (health, sports and curious facts).
I will determine if the questions observed in the two corpora show a manipulative use of the language.
Keywords: rhetorical questions, Chinese language, conversation analysis
Claudia Alborghetti (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)| Rewriting Italian social issues in English translation: Renée Reggiani and her impact on children’s literature in the 1960s
Translators of children’s literature often resort to manipulative strategies to meet the standards of children’s publishing in the receiving culture. This paper analyses the rewriting of two of Renée Reggiani’s works that address living conditions in the south of Italy during the 1960s. It argues that her image as a writer who broached topics considered taboo for a young audience has been softened in translation that omits sections of the target texts.
Keywords: children’s literature, translation, Renée Reggiani, descriptive translation studies
Laura Anelli (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | Umorismo tabù, traduzione audiovisiva e manipolazione testuale: quale testo per il pubblico italiano?
The present article focuses on textual manipulation, especially ideological manipulation, detectable in the translation of taboo humour present in some audiovisual texts to make such texts more acceptable for the receiving audience. Through a descriptive approach, three American sitcoms have been analysed – namely Friends, Will & Grace and How I Met Your Mother – in order to identify cases of ideological manipulation in the translation of the taboo humour therein contained.
Keywords: audiovisual translation, dubbing, manipulation, ideology, taboo humour
Gloria Colombo (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | “Das Stück könnte auch ‘Sprechfolterung’ heißen”. La manipolazione linguistica nel Kaspar di Peter Handke e gli albori del teatro postdrammatico
Peter Handke’s Kaspar continues the Austrian reflection on the crisis of language, which finds an emblematic expression in Hugo von Hofmannsthal’s Der Brief des Lord Chandos, but from a new point of view: The crisis of language is presented not so much as a mere consequence, but as a main cause of the crisis of the individual. The article aims at highlighting the strong connection between Kaspar – defined by Handke as an example of “linguistic torture” – and the development of the postdramatic German speaking theatre.
Keywords: Peter Handke, Kaspar, Postdramatic Theatre, Language Torture
Silvia Gilardoni (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | Gestione del discorso e mediazione dei saperi in classe CLIL
In this paper we consider the role of the teacher in the mediation and transmission of knowledge in a foreign language in CLIL context (Content and Language Integrated Learning), analysing the teacher cognition regarding classroom discourse management and teaching communication. The research is based on the analysis of teachers’ meta-didactic reflections collected through a questionnaire about self-observation of classroom discourse, administered to teachers involved in CLIL teaching at high schools in Italy. The discussion of the survey results allowed, first of all, highlighting the recurring elements in the teacher’s awareness of the use of discourse and teaching strategies in CLIL classroom communication. Starting from the teachers’ reflections, we were then able to identify some relevant issues in the perspective of teacher training and action research within the framework of CLIL innovation in the Italian school system.
Keywords: Content and Language Integrated Learning, teacher cognition, classroom discourse
Piet van de Craen (Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)) | CLIL and educational change. What CLIL teaches us about (language) learning
In Europe at all levels of education, especially in primary and early secondary education, the success of CLIL has been undeniable. It is argued that CLIL is such a powerful learning tool because implicit learning lies at the centre of its learning approach. Surprisingly enough, not too many linguists and educationalists have made this clear. This contribution examines implicit learning and considers its role in the CLIL approach. It is shown how implicit learning explains CLIL learning success and why it is important for scholars and practitioners to be aware of this.
Keywords: Language Learning, CLIL, Implicit learning
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In this Issue:
Antonella Luporini | Davide Astori | Luisa Villa | Alain Rabatel | Joseph Davis | Pier Francesco Fumagalli | Annalisa Federici
Antonella Luporini (Università degli Studi di Bologna) | Corpus-assisted Systemic Socio-Semantic Stylistics: Exploring ‘white’ and ‘red’ in Jean Rhys’ Wide Sargasso Sea
This contribution presents a corpus-assisted analysis of Wide Sargasso Sea, a postcolonial prequel to Jane Eyre. The study is part of a research project on the role of corpus linguistics in Hasan’s Systemic Socio-Semantic Stylistics (Hasan 1989). Combining quantitative findings and qualitative considerations, I focus on the Appraisal patterns (Martin – White 2005) involving white and red in Rhys’ text and examine their role in ‘symbolically articulating’ part of its deepest meaning (‘theme’).
Keywords: Corpus stylistics; Systemic Socio-Semantic Stylistics; Wide Sargasso Sea, Appraisal; white/red, other-ness.
Davide Astori (Università degli Studi di Parma) | Viaggi eterodossi fra esilio e fuga (alla ricerca di una patria inesistente) La provocazione esperantista di Teodoro Ŝvarc
Tivadar Soros, father of the more famous George, was the author of two autobiographical novels stemming from the dramatic experience of the war. Starting from the presentation of the two texts, this contribution illustrates and investigates his research – induced by the forced exile from his native land – for a new “virtual” homeland of universal peace and tolerance, inextricably linked to the Esperanto ideal of a common language for the whole mankind and to the reasons that led him to use it as a literary tool.
Keywords: Tivadar Soros, exile, war, name, esperanto.
Luisa Villa (Università degli Studi di Genova) | Mrs Felix Lorraine and Lady Caroline Lamb: Byronic Lore in Vivian Grey, Part I
Like many of his contemporaries, the young Disraeli was a Byromaniac, and his relationship with John Murray provided him with private information regarding the charismatic poet and those who had been acquainted with him. This essay focuses on the largely unexplored connection between the fictional Mrs Felix Lorraine and Lady Caroline Lamb in Vivian Grey, Part I. While highlighting a number of ‘Carolinish’ attributes and echoes, it tries to account for the relevance of Mrs Felix in the novel.
Keywords: Benjamin Disraeli, Lady Caroline Lamb, Vivian Grey; Byromania, roman à clef
Alain Rabatel, CNRS (Université Lumière Lyon 2, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon) | Prophétie, fonction prophétique et témoignage prophétique
Ce texte examine l’hypothèse d’une fonction prophétique – spirituelle ou temporelle –, définie par ses fonctions d’annonce et de mise en garde ancrées dans une vérité, annonçant comme certaine, en dépit de son caractère inouï ou de sa forme obscure, cryptée, la survenue imminente (ou déjà amorcée) d’un évènement qui fait sens, non seulement parce qu’il est extraordinaire, mais encore parce qu’il pose d’emblée la question de l’action en vue de la survie individuelle et collective. En première analyse, la prophétie est différente du témoignage par ses procédures de certification, la nature immanente ou historique de la vérité. Cependant ces différences ne gagnent rien à être durcies, sous l’angle des actes de discours ainsi que du caractère d’obligation qui s’impose au prophète comme au témoin et à la communauté à laquelle ils s’adressent. Les rapprochements sont encore plus patents lorsque les évènements rapportés sont inouïs. L’article expose ensuite la difficulté de faire entendre des témoignages prophétiques relatifs à l’univers concentrationnaire en contrastant deux tentatives différentes de surmonter la contradiction. Si Primo Levi se voit contraint de crypter poétiquement certains témoignages, Geneviève de Gaulle Anthonioz, partage son témoignage par une démarche empathique qui reconstruit le cheminement de sa compréhension du phénomène concentrationnaire, dans l’espoir que cette ré-expérienciation imaginaire permettra aux destinataires de répondre à l’appel des témoins.
Keywords : Prophecy, prophetic function, prophetic witness, diviner, witness
A semiotic, discourse-based linguistic hypothesis that bypasses the syntactic category subject and proposes instead contrasting meanings for the pronouns lui and egli provides empirical support for the critical interpretation of the novel Il Gattopardo as being anti-teleological. The hypothesis, which applies to large body of twentieth-century Italian literature, is that egli but not lui bears a linguistic meaning that ties its relevance to a verb. This linguistic hypothesis reveals a significant difference in Tomasi di Lampedusa’s portrayals of the novel’s two characters Don Fabrizio and Don Calogero: one as a character defined by who he is, the other as a character defined by what he does.
Keywords: linguistics, Gattopardo, Lampedusa, pronoun, egli, lui
Pier Francesco Fumagalli (Veneranda Biblioteca Ambrosiana)| The Arabic manuscripts in the Ambrosiana Library: A treasure for the arts, philosophy, sciences and dialogue between civilizations
The article describes the revival of humanism in Milan during the Renaissance and at the Ambrosiana Library since the beginning of the XVII century, focusing on the new fundamental perspective and programme for the Oriental Studies and in particular on the collection of Arabic and Persian manuscripts of the Ambrosiana Library.
Keywords: Ambrosiana, Oriental studies, Arabic manuscripts, Persian manuscripts, Intercultural dialogue
Annalisa Federici (Università degli Studi della Tuscia) | “I must not settle into a figure”: French Portraits of Virginia Woolf in the Shadow of Proust and Joyce
This essay analyses two significant and often interrelated aspects of Virginia Woolf’s reception in France throughout the 1920s and 1930s: its being essentially mediated by the connections that Bloomsbury maintained with Paris, and the fact that it was overshadowed by the fame of Proust and Joyce, who occupied pride of place on the French intellectual scene. Such comparison significantly contributed to the delineation of Woolf’s public image abroad and seems to justify the author’s unease about the circulation of a stereotypical portrait of herself, which would hinder her personal investigation into the fictional form.
Keywords: Virginia Woolf, reception, France, Marcel Proust, James Joyce
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In this issue:
Veronka Szőke | Alida Silletti | Monica Barsi | Sara Cigada e Caterina Garaffoni | Bernard Haidacher | Giancarmine Bongo | Elena Ballarin e Paolo Nitti |Francesca Saltamacchia e Andrea Rocci
The purpose of this essay is to analyse the economic imagery in Hamlet as it occurs in the play mainly in the form of similitudes, puns and metaphors. My point is that the economic images reproduce (and reaffirm) the central tenets of a mercantilist discourse along with its ambivalent notion of the market, which wavers between hegemonic, nationalistic attitudes and cosmopolitan and universal ones. This ambiguity plays an important role in underlining Hamlet’s ethical and epistemological deadlock in the role of revenger by tracing it, rather than to the eclipse of the late medieval order (according to Carl Scmitt’s famous thesis), to the contradictions of a modernity in progress to which the mercantilist discourse belongs.
Keywords: Mercantilism, money, goods exchange, Puritanism, Christian Humanism
Within Catherine Gore’s vast literary corpus there is an uncharacteristic novel titled Adventures in Borneo: A Tale of a Shipwreck (1849), in which the author experiments with exotic settings and adventures, a fictional subgenre in which she is not entirely comfortable. In the period of its publication, the British press was reporting and commenting on the controversial events involving Sir James Brooke, the White Rajah of Sarawak, and his anti-piracy campaign in the waters of the Malay Archipelago. In this article I try to investigate Gore’s take on such a delicate topic as British conduct in remote foreign lands, vis-à-vis alien cultures; I also refer to one of her unpublished letters, as well as to Brooke’s journal published in 1846 – most likely her primary source for the socio-cultural information on the Borneo population deployed in the novel. This article also seeks to contribute to the critical-literary debate over Catherine Gore providing a starting point for a more thorough study of her attitude towards British colonialism.
Keywords: Catherine Gore, James Brooke, Adventures in Borneo, exoticism
The reflection on human existence described by Rainer Maria Rilke in the arduous verses of the Duineser Elegien, one of the highest expressions of 20th century poetry, has been the object of a long, rigorous and illuminating meditation by Romano Guardini. To remember the great Italian-German Catholic intellectual, theologian and philosopher on the 50th anniversary of his death (1968-2018), this contribution anticipates some of the contents developed in the collection of Guardini’s writings on Rilke edited by the author, which will be published in 2019 by Morcelliana. Three are the main elements highlighted here: the academic and didactic reasons that led Guardini to reflect on Rilkes’ work; the essential outline of his hermeneutics; finally, the main reasons that caused Guardini to take a very critical stand towards Rilkes’ poetry, which represents a painful and dramatic reflection on the annihilation of the modern man.
Keywords: Romano Guardini, Rainer Maria Rilke, Elegie Duinesi
Since the inauguration of his career in 1963, with Le procès-verbal, 2008 Nobel Laureate, J.-M. Gustave Le Clézio has published over 40 works. His writing is characterized by an original style, in which the language aims to reproduce the complexity of reality. He writes about landscapes and traditions, nature (the richness of its fauna and flora), modern society – through various narrative strategies – collage techniques, lexical choices, figures of speech – that we will explore in this article.
Keywords: writing style, narrative strategies, collage techniques, lexical choices, figures of speech
Yahis Martari | Come scrivono i politici italiani su Facebook Appunti per un’analisi linguistica comparativa
This article aims at proposing a linguistic analysis of 358 posts written on Facebook (FB) by six Italian politicians. More specifically, the corpus consists of six official political Italian pages, which can be divided into two samples (three pages per sample), corresponding to two different observation moments: 1. December 2012 – January 2013 (88 post); 2. May – August 2017 (270 post). While the focus of attention is on posts, comments have also been taken into account in this survey (10 for each post). The two samples here analyzed are fairly close in time, but, given the accelerated speed of web evolution, some (micro-)diachronic remarks can be made in order to show how the Italian politicians’ communication on FB has been changed from 2013 to 2017.
In sections 1 and 2 the issue concerning the language of politics on the web (with special reference to social networks) has been introduced and the corpus has been presented in detail; in sections 3 and 4, the language and the stylistic characteristics of the two samples have been analyzed; finally, in sections 5 and 6, some concluding remarks are given, especially focusing the most recent sample.
Keywords: political communication, linguistic analysis, Facebook, writing
Valentina Noseda | La corpus revolution russa e il corpus parallelo italiano-russo: storia, criteri di compilazione e usi
This paper aims at presenting the Italian-Russian parallel corpus, expanded in 2015 and now available within the Russian National Corpus (Nacional’nyj Korpus Russkogo Jazyka). In particular, the paper describes the history, the design criteria, the phases of construction and the potential offered by this tool for language and literary studies in the field of Italian Slavistics.
Keywords: Corpus linguistics, parallel corpora, corpus design, contrastive linguistics, applied linguistics
Giulio Segato | The Home of the Brave. Sezione monografica a cura di G. Segato Hard, Stoic, Isolate, and a Killer. Appunti sul carattere americano
Questa sezione riprende alcuni degli interventi presentati al seminario di studi The Home of the Brave, svoltosi presso la sede milanese dell’Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore il 22 novembre 2016, con il contributo dei Dipartimenti di Scienze linguistiche e Letterature Straniere e di Scienze Politiche, cui vanno i miei più sentiti ringraziamenti. L’obiettivo del seminario era celebrare i duecentoquarant’anni dalla Dichiarazione d’Indipendenza degli Stati Uniti d’America (1776). In questa prospettiva, ci sembrò opportuno pensare a un titolo che esprimesse una certa solennità e, allo stesso tempo, alludesse almeno a una ‘qualità strutturale’ del carattere americano. The Home of the Brave – il terzo verso dell’inno nazionale americano, fortunatamente mai cantato – ci pareva un’espressione che centrasse abbastanza bene l’obiettivo.
This paper aims to examine the origin of the hard-boiled hero. I suggest it is possible to find his first arrival in the frontier romance created by James Fenimore Cooper in 1823 with The Pioneer, in which Natty Bumppo makes his first appearance, the real archetype of the hard-boiled detective. Then there is a second important stage: Allan Pinkerton’s narratives drawn from his real experience as a private vigilante. Pinkerton’s detectives were strong men of honor with a clear moral view, so his fictional heroes had the same features. The last influence on the hard-boiled hero is to be found in the dime novels protagonists’ evolution. If at first they were only cowboys, scouts or outlaws, at the end of XIX century they became detectives and the setting of the stories changed: no longer the landscape of the US/Mexico border but the big cities.
Keywords: Hard-boiled hero, detective novel, dime novels, J.F. Cooper, Allan Pinkerton
Starting from some definitions of ‘female heroism’ that highlight it as a problematic concept, this essay focuses on Margaret Fuller’s interest in different meanings and interpretations of the heroic ideal. Her Italian experience enables Fuller to recognize Giuseppe Mazzini as a supreme embodiment of modern heroism, as well as to explore the potential (which had already been taken into consideration in her treatise Woman in the Nineteenth Century) and the limits of a female incarnation of heroism.
Keywords: Female heroism, bravery, righteous violence
This paper aims to examine Carl Sandburg’s unusual trajectory from militant poet and socialist propagandist to standard-bearer for the American values of unity, freedom and progress. If in his first book, Chicago Poems, the author harshly criticized the American lifestyle and the capitalist system, over the years we witness a gradual transformation, which mitigates Sandburg’s controversial positions, until he became an embodiment of the founding ideals of the nation and a symbol of the American Dream.
Keywords: Sandburg, Lincoln, Chicago, America, Socialism
It is possible to download the entire journal as PDF file by clicking here, as ePub file by clicking here, and also as mobi file (Kindle format) by clicking here.
In this Issue:
Veronka Szőke | Alida Silletti | Monica Barsi | Sara Cigada e Caterina Garaffoni | Bernard Haidacher | Giancarmine Bongo | Elena Ballarin e Paolo Nitti |Francesca Saltamacchia e Andrea Rocci
The Norwegian Rune Poem has often been evaluated negatively because of an overall impression of a lack of coherence and cohesion. Analysis of the poem against the background of wisdom tradition has allowed a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in its composition. The article considers the poem in parallel with Sólarljóð and Málsháttakvæði – two poetic works deriving from the same cultural context – and aims to further analise the poem’s structure and illuminate aspects of its imagery.
Keywords: Norwegian Rune Poem, Sólarljóð, Málsháttakvæði, runic lore
Alida Silletti | ‘Aller + infinitif’ et ‘andare a + infinitif’ : effets de sens ‘illustratif’ et ‘risolutivo’
Cette contribution aborde les parcours de grammaticalisation et les effets de sens d’‘aller + infinitif’ et de ‘andare a + infinitif’ en français et en italien contemporains. A partir d’un corpus parallèle de presse, nous montrerons que les effets de sens « illustratif » de la périphrase française et « risolutivo » de la périphrase italienne ne relèvent pas d’une correspondance entre les deux périphrases mais plutôt d’un simple contact entre leurs effets de sens.
Keywords : aller + infinitive; andare a + Infinitive, grammaticalization ; illustrative and risolutivo semantic values, contrastive analysis
The contribution studies the adaptations of the textbooks for the French teaching of Mauger bleu and Mauger rouge in Italian editions at Petrini. The two Maugers are significant in the history of glottodydactics because they attest, from the 1960s to the 1970s, the transition from a grammar of the parts of speech to a grammar of structures. In Italy, we will see the same movement that is here evoked to contextualize the Mauger in the Italian publishing market.
Keywords: Glottodidactics, second language teaching, French teaching, teaching methods
Sara Cigada e Caterina Garaffoni | Teatro sentimentale e propaganda Les Victimes cloîtrées di Jacques-Marie Boutet
We outline the emotive elements in the dramatic work of Boutet (Monvel), Les Victimes cloîtrées. Linguistic and discourse analysis are based both on Christian Plantin’s methodology and on Rodolphus Agricola’s XVth century model. It appears that the sentimental component of the pièce is consistent with the ideological goal of supporting Jacobin politics and discrediting the Church, in the context of the French Revolution.
Keywords: emotive argumentation, manipulation, emotions in discourse analysis, discourse analysis and argumentation, French Revolution
André Martinet (1979) is the originator of the term ‘confix’. However, in Romance linguistics the concept has not enjoyed much popularity. In French, we find a multitude of terms for these bound morphemes, which are typically integrated in the framework of composition. Nowadays, French linguists use the abstract schema of construction morphology, in which there are no specific categories. The German-speaking literature, by contrast, has paid a great deal of attention to the phenomenon.
Keywords: confix(es), research tradition, morphology, word-formation, neoclassical compounding
Giancarmine Bongo | Allgemeine Diskursreferenz in deutschen und italienischen Einleitungen zu wissenschaftlichen Zeitschriftenartikeln
This study examines a corpus of 40 Introductions to articles published in scientific specialized journals (20 in German language, 20 in Italian language), with regard to the relation, that each scientific text has to establish with its research background. Within this relation a peculiar dimension emerges, which on the basis of the concept of discourse by Foucault could be defined as ‚General Discourse Reference‘. It is the relation with the research background as the field of the ‘already-said’, of all effective statements, without reference to specific works or authors: it is thus the possibility to establish a not intertextual relation with a universe of texts. How and in what extent is such a ‚General Discourse Reference‘ realized in the analyzed Introductions? Are there cultural differences between German and Italian articles?
Keywords: discourse reference, introductions, scientific articles, German, Italian
Elena Ballarin e Paolo Nitti | I risultati di un’indagine sull’insegnamento e sulla rappresentazione dei colori nell’ambito dell’italiano L2/LS
The essay presents the results of a survey on the teaching methods and the representation of colors in Italian as Second Language (ISL). The survey was administered to the teachers and the analysis shows that few teachers have the awareness of the lexicon complexity and the mechanisms connected to the texts. The representation of colors in different languages is contemplated by a very short number of informants, giving the idea that the transmission of the vocabulary in ISL education is a mere fact of translation between the two languages. In the light of these data, teachers should be involved in learning practices in order to understand the role of the vocabulary and the lexicon in a language and the methods for teaching it in ISL classes.
Keywords: colors, vocabulary, L2-LS, ethnolinguistics, psycholinguistics, acquisitional linguistics
Francesca Saltamacchia e Andrea Rocci | Metapragmatica della cortesia nell’Italia del primo Ottocento. La polemica sulla cortesia tra Melchiorre Gioja e Antonio Rosmini: utilitarismo o principio di carità
This article shows an example of explicit argumentation about politeness: the dispute between Melchiorre Gioja and Antonio Rosmini about the chapter Apologia della moda written by Melchiorre Gioja in the Nuovo Galateo (1820). In particular, we examine Rosmini’s Galateo de’letterati (1828) and we focus on arguments that justify Rosmini’s metapragmatics comments and fallacies.
Keywords: Politeness, argumentation, nineteenth-century, Italy, controversy, fallacy
In this Issue:
Jennifer Valcke, Amanda C. Murphy, Francesca Costa | Joanne Pagèze, David Lasagabaster | Elizabeth Long | Susanna Broggini| Robert Wilkinson, René Gabriëls | Cristina Mariotti | Francesca Helm, Fiona Dalziel
Jennifer Valcke, Amanda C. Murphy, Francesca Costa | Introduction EMI – A Tool for the Internationalisation of Higher Education
Round table moderated by Prof. Simonetta Polenghi, Professor of History of Education, Head of the Department of Education | What are we Changing when we Teach in English? Views from the Schools of Economics, Mathematics and Physics, Engineering and Linguistics
The Round Table was set up to provide a variety of answers to the same question: What are we changing when we teach in English? Representatives from four different disciplinary areas took part, three from Milan – Management, Engineering and Linguistics – and two – Maths and Physics – from Brescia. The issues that were brought up overlap to some extent, but each disciplinary area pointed out something original, indicating areas for future research. The speakers’ contributions have been edited slightly, but some elements of spoken discourse have been preserved for the sake of authenticity.
Francesca Costa | The Introduction of English as an Academic Language in a Faculty of Physics and Mathematics in Italy
The use of English as a medium of instruction at university level has increased dramatically in the last 15 years all over Europe. English-taught programmes are often imposed top-down, and this article presents one of the very few cases in which the process and decision-making have been documented, in terms of a pre-feasibility study conducted through a student questionnaire and interview with the Dean. The research is set within the Italian context of a Faculty of Mathematics and Physics. Results reveal that in general students have a positive attitude towards this implementation, but many adjustments still need to be carried out.
Keywords: EMI, English as an academic language, Mathematics and physics
Joanne Pagèze, David Lasagabaster| Teacher Development for Teaching and Learning in English in a French
Higher Education Context
Discussion of the impact of institutional initiatives on the development of EMI in the French context has been minimal due to the particular way in which EMI has emerged in France. The aim of this paper is to explore the impact of a teacher development initiative set up in 2014 at the University of Bordeaux in order to help disciplinary teachers make the transition to teaching their discipline in English. The objective here is to explore how local context is impacting this shift in teaching and learning practices through EMI.
Keywords: teacher development / EMI / France / Internationalisation
This article maps the evolution of lecturer training courses at the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia since 2011 to the present to meet the growth of English taught degree programmes being offered. It illustrates a three-pronged approach developed to deliver methodological and language instruction to Italian lecturers through three distinct “Lecturing in English” modules, outlining the rationale behind each element. It also considers the new role of the teacher trainer in training university teachers.
Keywords: English Medium Instruction, teacher education, ongoing professional development, English-taught programmes, UNIMORE.
Susanna Broggini, Amanda C. Murphy | Metadiscourse in EMI lectures: Reflections on a Small Corpus of Spoken Academic Discourse
This paper describes a qualitative study on the use of metadiscourse in EMI university courses. It adopts Noble’s simplified and restricted classification model of metadiscourse markers, adapted from Ädel, focuses on reflexive language and is applied to academic spoken discourse.
Keywords: Metadiscourse, discourse analysis, academic spoken discourse, corpus-based study, qualitative research
Robert Wilkinson, René Gabriëls | Adapting to EMI in Higher Education: Students’ Perceived Learning Strategies 341Adapting to EMI in Higher Education: Students’ Perceived Learning Strategies
To a varying extent, many universities are changing their language of instruction to English in order to position themselves in the global market of higher education. This change attracts mobile students who wish to undertake studies abroad, but they may have to adjust the way they study. The central question in the study we report here is how students perceive an effect of English-medium instruction on their learning strategies. In an exploratory study, students were interviewed about their learning strategies as a consequence of EMI, about possible inequalities in EMI and how they perceive them. The findings suggest that modification of learning strategies depends on personal agency and the learning context. The interviews reveal three types of linguistic asymmetry at the individual level under EMI. The qualitative data confirm findings of previous studies and suggest new perspectives for quantitative research on learning strategies in EMI and linguistic inequalities.
Keywords: English-medium instruction (EMI), learning strategies, language inequalities, linguistic asymmetry
Francesca Costa, Cristina Mariotti | Students’ Outcomes in English-Medium Instruction: Is there any Difference Related to Discipline?
This paper focuses on the acquisition of content in Economics and Science EMI classes taught by the same lecturers. The control group consists of L1-taught classes (Italian), whereas the experimental group consists of L2-taught classes (English). Students’ marks in two comparable written exams are analysed. Data are complemented with interviews with the lecturers. The results show that in some instances the two groups differ significantly as regards the acquisition of content.
Keywords: ICLHE, content acquisition, content presentation, English-medium instruction, Italian-medium instruction
Francesca Helm, Fiona Dalziel | Beyond the Classroom: the Impact of EMI on a University’s Linguistic Landscape
In this paper we explore the linguistic landscape of an Italian state university. A “Linguistic Landscape” refers to the language visible in public spaces, and to a transdisciplinary approach adopted in language policy studies, often in “arenas of contestation”. The EMI context can be considered such an arena; linguistic landscaping offers an exciting new methodological approach, enabling observation of the changing face of universities in their quest for ever-increasing internationalisation.
Keywords: English-Medium Instruction (EMI), Linguistic Landscape (LL), language policy, internationalisation
In this issue:
Nataliya Stoyanova | Miriam Ravetto | Ettore Marchetti | Afsaneh Pourmazaheri | Giulio Segato | Gloria Colombo | Renata Zanin | Claudio Macagno | Giuseppe Ghini | Мауриция Калузио | Галина Жиличева
Nataliya Stoyanoya | Struttura del discorso negli apprendenti italofoni di russo: analisi testuale comparata russo-italiano
This article presents the results of a discourse analysis of Russian-learning texts by italophones. The discourse structure was examined from the point of view of the preferences for discourse relations on various acquisitional stages and from the point of view of hierarchization. Furthermore the grade of repartition of situations and the grade of the discourse structures complexity were analysed, allowing us thus to characterize the textuality of the considered acquisitional varieties compared to the native Russian and Italian.
Keywords: discourse analysis, Russian language, compared textuality, acquisitional varieties, linguospecific patterns
Miriam Ravetto | «Come si dice?» / «Wie heisst das?» – Strategie di ricerca lessicale in visite guidate con italiano e tedesco L2
The paper investigates word search sequences in a corpus of guided tours, in which tourist guides speak Italian and German as foreign languages. Italian and German are, on the contrary, the native languages of the group of tourists. Using the approach of Conversation Analysis, the study describes and classifies the word search dynamics and strategies, through which tourist guides try to find the problematic word.
Keywords: word search, Conversation Analysis, touristic communication, interactional linguistics.
Ettore Marchetti | “Boia imperialisti, spie di regime e corrotti buffoni”. La lingua dei comunicati delle brigate rosse durante il Sequestro Moro
On March 16th 1978, Italy goes through one of the worst pages in its history, when the Brigate Rosse (Red Brigades), the armed party, kidnap the politician Aldo Moro and brutally kill five bodyguards; the BR thus begin their swan song. During the fifty-five days of imprisonment of the president of the DC (Christian Democratic Party), the terrorists elaborate and issue nine statements in which they illustrate the motivations and strategies of both the kidnapping and the armed struggle. It is definitely one of the events that has most impressed the public opinion since the second postwar, and that a large bibliography keeps examining. However, one aspect has always remained less explored than others: the linguistic one. Through a syntactic, morphological, and lexical analysis this article gives an account of the salient features of the statements, including the rhetorical devices and the communication strategies used by the authors. The linguistic observation highlights the complexity of the nine texts, and the opportunity to consider them as a coherent corpus of writings that share common traits which, although they do not constitute a technical language, still define a peculiar way to communicate of a specific terrorist group. The present work is inspired by a general enthusiasm of the recent Italian studies for the Seventies and for the so called ‘Years of Lead’, and is meant to suggest a particular attention to the role of language in the study of terrorism and of political violence of that period.
Keywords: Red Brigades, statements, semantic fields, expressivity, lexical and syntactic complexity
Ce travail de recherche s’interroge sur la représentation discursive des référents exotiques filtrée par un regard stéréotypé dans les récits de trois voyageurs français en Orient de la première moitié du XIXe siècle. Les énonciateurs-voyageurs, placés dans un contexte linguistique et culturel asymétrique, tentent de saisir et de transcrire leurs observations sur le terrain étranger en fonction de leur intellect, de leur cognition et de leur expérience. Une série d’éléments marqués par l’altérité viennent modifier la représentation que l’auteur-voyageur donne du référent et de l’univers référentiel auquel il est confronté. C’est à cette façon « réductrice » de voir les référents issus d’un univers différent et à l’intervention de la subjectivité de l’auteur que nous nous intéressons dans cette étude. Nous analysons les effets discursifs produits par l’usage des ressources linguistiques ainsi que par les positionnements énonciatifs des auteurs-voyageurs. Cette approche homogénéisante et généralisante de la perception de l’Autre se fait au travers des moules préconstruits et une démarche subjective dans la culture réceptrice que nous tenterons de voir à l’aide des outils d’analyse langagiers et discursifs dans les récits de voyage de Goupil Fesquet (1844), de Rémy Aucher-Eloy (1843) et de J.M. Tancoigne (1819) en Orient, notamment en Perse.
Keywords: stereotypy, alterity, travel literature, ethnotype, representation
With the exception of No Country for Old Men, the Vietnam War has never appeared openly in Cormac McCarthy’s novels, but it has nevertheless left a deep trace on his early work (Child of God, Suttree, and Blood Meridian). Blood Meridian in particular shows, despite his western setting, an imaginary influenced by the military-political experience of Vietnam. A few scenes in the book in fact read more like a war novel rather than a western, and the connection is even deeper than that. The Vietnam novels typically have some concerns – such as the chaotic descriptions of the battle, the explosion of meaningless violence often perpetrated by friendly fire, and the guerrilla warfare – which are to be found at their best in Blood Meridian. My essay discusses these issues through a comparison with a western movie often associated with the Vietnam War: Sam Peckinpah’s The Wild Bunch.
Keywords: Cormac McCarthy, Blood Meridian, Vietnam War, The Wild Bunch, Western, war novel
Gloria Colombo | Wie wenn sich eine einzige hohe aber starke stimme bilde: lingua e stile nel romanzo das scHLOSS di Franz Kafka
While writing Das Schloß (1922), Kafka not only tried to eliminate the most typical elements of Southern German, Viennese German, Czech and Yiddish in order to draw near to the elegance of Classicism, but also shaped the narrative style on the basis of Biblical Hebrew. The accent placed by the latter on parataxis and repetition led him to create a sort of acoustic hallucination, which – as well as the influence of Biblical Hebrew on the novel – has so far been ignored by Kafka scholars.
Keywords: Franz Kafka, The Castle, Prager Deutsch, Hebrew Bible, acoustic hallucination
Elfriede Gerstl can be truly considered a ‘minor’ Austrian poet who spent a lifelong search for her own literary voice at the margins of the turmoil of the literary avant-garde in postwar Vienna. Existential insecurity, irony and a superb command of the German language come together with a highly emotional way of speaking. Elfriede Gerstl’s poems and the recordings of her poems can be successfully used in teaching pronunciation and intonation to Italian learners of German.
Keywords: pattern and culture, prosody, idiomatic and prosodic coinage, poetry in language classes
In Darya Dontsova’s detective novels the categories of terrible and tragic do not play a significant role but, on the contrary, are deliberately attenuated through the deployment of a number of different strategies that make it impossible to read these novels “без улыбки на лице” [without a smile on one’s face].
Starting from the fundamental works of Bergson (Le rire), Freud (Der Humor) and Pirandello (L’umorismo) and from a series of theoretical concepts accounting for the workings of humour, this paper analyses the various devices employed by Dontsova, the undisputed “queen of the ironic detective story”, to create comic effects.
Keywords: Darya Dontsova, detective story, humour, irony, Humor Studies.
Giuseppe Ghini | “L’eterna influenza francese” Classici russi per il tramite del francese all’alba del Terzo millennio
he article deals with a bad practice introduced anew in Italian publishing: translations from Russian through intermediate French versions. Three Italian translations – The trial of Brodsky, a Chekhov’s and a Grossman’s short story – are shown to be dependent from French versions, then causes and consequences of their lexical and stylistic detachment from the original text are analyzed, a detachment inescapable in second-hand translations, on principle alien to a philological approach.
Keywords: Second hand translations, The trial of Joseph Brodsky, The story of an unknown man, In the main line of attack
Мауриция Калузио | Василий Гроссман. и первый опыт художественного исследования Гулага (О повести Все течет…)
It is difficult to determine which genre Vasily Grossman’s last work Everything flows (1955-1963) belongs to. In the last decades of the XX century, literary critics noticed how this work completely lacks a plot and a fabula. Some researchers have even refused to call this text a ‘literary work’. In this article, an attempt has been made to show how Grossman, when talking about themes that were still inaccessible for that time (the system of labour camps, Holodomor and so on), created a completely new and audacious way of narrating. Grossman’s apparent contemptuous approach to the rules of narration in Everything flows is actually generated by the need to tell without lies the indescribable and ineffable human journey in the camps. In this article, we analyze the motifs of travel and dream, as well as the figure of preterition, which Grossman uses to express his dissent from the falsity of socialist realism.
Keywords: Vasily Grossman, Everything flows, Gulag literature, Russian literature
Галина Жиличева | “Ясность” и “связность” как смысловые доминанты нарратива В. Гроссмана (“За правое дело”, “Жизнь и судьба”)
This paper deals with the dominant ideas of the narrative structure of Vasily Grossman’s novels. The semantic fields of the concepts of ‘clearness’ (‘yasnost’’) and ‘connectedness’ (‘svyaznost’’) are being analyzed. In Grossman’s dilogy, these concepts are being regarded as the signs of the plot situation of ‘revelation’.
This article suggests that the words “yasnyi” (clear, serene, obvious), “prozrachnyi” (transparent), “svet” (light), “svyaz’” (bond, link, connection), “nit’” (thread) and their cognates can be described as overdetermined signs due to their frequent usage in Grossman’s dilogy. Such signs are related to the basic metaphors of European literature (the correlation of world, text and fabric; metaphors of vision) and, therefore, they are the crucial parts of Grossman’s dialogue with previous literature tradition. The usage of the concepts of ‘clearness’ and ‘connectedness’ emphasizes the sophisticated interaction between the two parts of the communicative structure of the novels – between the discourse of ‘revelation’ and the discourse of ‘agitation’. Moreover, those concepts can also bear a metanarrative significance. Grossman’s narrative manifests the urge of the ultimate ‘connectedness’ and ‘clearness’ while showing the ‘invisible’ threads and ‘clear’ truth.
Keywords: Grossman, narrative, repetition, discourse strategy
In this issue:
A. Cattani – F. H. van Eemeren – M.D. Aeschliman – V. Prencipe – V. Bogushevskaya – C. Naccarato – C. Macagno – G. Giardini
Frans H. van Eemeren, Sulla ragionevolezza
M.D. Aeschliman, A Dark Angel and His Masterpiece: Aldous Huxley and Brave New World
Vittoria Prencipe, Origine e significato delle parole che parlano di cibo
The project aims to trace the semantic of the most commonly used words referred to food, beside ‘food’ and ‘nourishment’, through a prevailing etymological analysis, in order to highlight the differences that got lost in their current use. The second part of the article focuses on the concept of ‘feast’, convivium, a way to spend life together, upon which the Western idea of civilization is based.
Keywords: food, nourishment, banquet, civilization
One of the peculiarities of Chinese colour vocabulary is that the composite qīng 青category not only denotes green-blue continuum, but also extends into the macro-black area of a colour space. Qīng is one of the five canonical colours in China. Although it has a binary word formation function – as a radical in derived colour lexemes in wenyan and as a morpheme in compounds in Modern Standard Mandarin – it is not a basic colour term in contemporary Chinese, there are separate psychologically salient terms for ‘green’, ‘blue’ and ‘black’. The paper aims to provide semantic analysis of all the existing meanings of the polysemantic qīng, determines the sequence of their emergence and puts forward a hypothesis about the reasons for their syncretism.
Keywords: colour naming, grue, macro-category, qing, colour categorisation
Chiara Naccarato, I composti verbali in russo
This paper is about verbal compounds in Russian. After a brief description of the main characteristics of verbal compounds and of the criteria used for their identification, Russian verbal compounds are classified on the basis of their morphological structure. Finally, the different types of verbal compounds are identified and the compounds that cannot be regarded as ‘verbal’ are excluded from this category.
Keywords: compounding, verbal compounds, Russian, argument structure
Claudio Macagno, La poetica di titoli e copertine dei gialli di Dar’ja Doncova
This paper investigates the titles and the covers of Darya Dontsova’s detective novels. Starting from a number of considerations on the importance and function of the title in literary texts in general, the work focuses on the investigation of this phenomenon in mass popular literature, the genre which Dontsova’s novels belong to. The article describes the linguistic and semioic processes on which the choice of the titles and the covers is based. The principal semantic groups, the relationship between the titles of Dontsova’s novels and the series in which they are grouped are also examined. The numerous intertextual references that can be found in the titles on the one hand render the titles more attractive, on the other hand reveal a refined and sophisticated operation, the result of a poetic expression of our times.
Keywords: mass popular literature, detective story, Dar’ja Doncova, titology, intertextuality
Giorgia Giardini, Il messaggio sociale nel teatro di Miguel Hernández
Ce travail se propose d’illustrer la trajectoire sociale et politique de Miguel Hernández à travers ses pièces de théâtre : nous analyserons sa progressive adhésion au communisme et son activité de propagande pendant la Guerre Civile Espagnole. En même temps, nous décrirons plusieurs choix thématiques de l’auteur, avec une attention particulière à la caractérisation des personnages dans ses pièces engagées.
Keywords: Miguel Hernández, engaged theatre, characters, evolution