Dans ce numéro:
E. Banfi – M. Morani – C. Heiss & M. Soffritti – T. Roelcke – P. F. Fumagalli – C. Plantin – J. G. Tamine – I. M. Kobozeva – R. Reppen – M. Baggio & M. C. Gatti, B. Cambiaghi, D. Vago, E. Galazzi & C. Molinari, M. Ulrych & M. L. Maggioni, A. Bonola, G. Gobber & F. Missaglia
Emanuele Banfi, ‘Imperfezione’ vs ‘perfezione’ dei sistemi linguistici
From a purely structural point of view, any language (be it a prestigious cultural language or a dialect anywhere in the world) is perfect. In theory, each linguistic system has its own phonological, morphological, lexical and syntactic systems, which are perfectly functional. The notion of ‘imperfection’ or, better, of ‘inadequacy’, can be attributed to a linguistic system when we analyze its ‘potentialities’ from a sociocultural point of view. The more a linguistic system may be defined as ‘perfect’, the more the sociocultural areas in which it can be used. In this regard, the notion of ‘architecture’ in linguistic systems proves very useful: it is a powerful theoretical device that allows us to seize, thanks to linguistic parameters, the segments ‘composing’ the system and determining their position in an ideal linguistic space.
The paper focuses on some questions related to the Italian football terminology according to the investigation methods of historical linguistics. Starting from my contribution of 1991, I try to examine some changes in the language of football in the last twenty years. The following points are discussed: 1. Football terminology in Wikipedia. 2. Ephemeral words in the language of football. 3. Italian and other languages: some comparisons. 4. Palo e traversa (vertical goal and crossbar). 5. Foreign words in Italian (and Italian loanwords in foreign languages). 6. Neologisms in the language of football . 7. Goals and derivatives. 8. To dribble and derivatives. 9. The type ‘finalissima’. 10. The type ‘facitore’ and other derivative words (nomina agentis) in -tor. 11. Conclusions.
Christine Heiss, Marcello Soffritti, “Das ist namlich so / So lauft das namlich”. Der Gebrauch von namlich und seinen italienischen Entsprechungen in Filmdialogen. Eine kontrastive Untersuchung mit der Datenbank FORLIXT
We analyze in this contribution the usage of German nämlich in oral dialogical communication and its possible translations into Italian. Our study – based on the FORLIXT multimedia database – adds new findings to the results of previous research which was carried out mainly on written texts or self produced examples. We document a very flexible and differentiated usage of ‘nämlich’, which discloses new features and special communication strategies in dialogic interaction beyond classifications proposed so far. Richness and flexibility also show in the dubbing of film dialogues from Italian to German, in connection with specific requirements of multimedia translation.
This article outlines German thought on the Italian language during the 17th and 18th century. It is shown that during the Baroque and Enlightenment periods the Italian language is controversial, is referred to metaphorically and is frequently the object of value judgements in public discussion. A lexicographical project regarding language thought in German-speaking countries is presented. Leaning on an innovative and lean lexicographical structure, the purpose of the project is to provide a text-immanent interpretation and documentation of thought regarding languages and dialects during this period.
Pier Francesco Fumagalli, Lingue, culture, religioni: Cina e India in dialogo
New opportunities of global cultural exchanges stimulate reflection on religions and cultures, both in European and in Asian context, and urge to include references to ancient traditions and to contemporary anthropological theories. Not only Jewish, Christian and Muslim traditions, but also metaphysical and mystical thoughts from Greece and India, should develop deeper dialogue with Chinese values of Confucian and Taoist origin. Other contributions to the same effort for shared responsibility in facing the challenges of today’s society, could come from many streams of scientific and humanistic studies, from Buddhist traditions and from historical research.
Christian Plantin, Ethos, persona e autorità
What is ethos and which role does it play in argumentation? Beyond the relevant connections between ethos and logos (ethos consists mainly of a discursive process constructing the person) and between ethos and pathos (ethos necessarily moves), the present contribution makes its start from the polysemic uses of the word ‘ethos’, which seems to have taken the place of the word ‘character’ in the lexicon of argumentation. We analyse ‘the person’ from three points of view: first of all, as a ‘source’ of discourse, ethos may play the role of a piece of evidence, persuasive as far as the person appears to be expert and honest. So we study the distinction between technical ethos (a result of discourse) and extra-technical ethos (charisma). In the second place, the person is the ‘subject’ of discourse implying specific (topical) lines in discursive construction. Finally the person is the ‘addressee’ of discourse: auditory character determines premises and arguments. Critical models refuse authority as poisoning the well: we take up the challenge of thinking of argumentation as an activity ‘in context’ in order to determine the conditions of an acceptable use of authority. In order to do so, we shall speak against an invasive rhetoric ethos, i.e. against authoritarianism. Context makes us aware of specific social conditions, such as legal norms, which bind by the force of conventional institutions.
Joelle Gardes Tamine, Rhetorique et poesie
Aristotle made a distinction between poetry and rhetoric because the former concerns what is possible and the latter facts. One can, however, note points of contact between the two disciplines. Poetry can indeed argue and, in epideictic speech, is aligned with rhetoric on the need to promote the values of beauty. Besides, Aristotle recognized that “thought” and “ways of expression” equally characterized both. This provides above all a global, highly flexible vision of language, solving the conflicts, as one can see especially in rhetorical figures. Not only does the ethos-logos-pathos trio enable one to define rhetoric conceived as “problematological” in M. Meyer’s words, but it also applies to all linguistic functions, so that one can see poetry as a branch of rhetoric or both as the two poles of the same linguistic activity.
Irina Michajlovna Kobozeva, Conjunctions as markers of rhetoric relations in discourse: the case of Russian ‘и’ – Союзы как маркеры риторических отношений в дискурсе: русский союз ‘и’
The paper is a case study in semantics of conjunctions treated as markers of semantic relations between discourse units. The variety of uses, that grammarians called «specific senses» of the main Russian coordinate conjunction и (“and”), is explored from this perspective. The rhetorical relations (RR s) from the Rhetorical Structure Theory of Mann and Thompson are used as a meta-language for the description of conjunctions’ meaning. The wide spectrum of RRS compatible with the use of и is described and it is demonstrated that in general a «specific sense» of the conjunction in a given compound sentence can be correctly interpreted only in the context of a larger discourse unit.
This paper explores using online resources for language instruction. Resources for teachers and students are described along with some guidelines for using these resources. Online resources that address specific skills are addressed along with tools that are available for creating activities. The paper concludes with a brief exploration of using online corpus resources.
Notes, Debates and Reviews, a cura di Mario Baggio e Maria Cristina Gatti, Bona Cambiaghi, Davide Vago, Enrica Galazzi e Chiara Molinari, Margherita Ulrych e Maria Luisa Maggioni, Anna Bonola, Giovanni Gobber e Federica Missaglia
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