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Dans ce numéro :
Maurizia Calusio | Valentina Noseda| Elda Garetto e Sara Mazzucchelli | Ornella Discacciati | Adriano Dell’Asta | Giuseppe Ghini | Sergio Rapetti
Elda Garetto e Sara Mazzucchelli | Le prime edizioni italiane di Solženicyn nei documenti degli archivi editoriali
The essay presents the results of a research carried out at Mondadori, Saggiatore and Einaudi archives on the first editions of Solženicyn’s novels during the 60-ies. The analysis of the correspondences amongst Italian publishers, literary critics, representatives of literary agencies and translators aims at illustrating an emblematic case study about the dissemination of the Soviet dissident literature in Italy.
Keywords: Solzhenitsyn, Italian publishing houses, archives, translation studies
The paper retraces the debate, in the periodicals of the Italian Left, between the poets Franco Fortini and Giovanni Giudici, following the publication of One day in the life of Ivan Denisovič and Matryona’s House, and in which the Slavist Vittorio Strada took part. This lively dialogue with three voices, very different from each other although all with a Marxist imprint, is undoubtedly the most remarkable outcome of the reading of Aleksandr Solženicyn in Italy, when he was still considered a socialist and a Soviet author.
Keywords: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Franco Fortini, Giovanni Giudici, Vittorio Strada, reception studies, One day in the life of Ivan Denisovič
The article contextualizes the publication of the story by A. Solzhenitsyn The House of Matrëna focusing on affinities and differences with the works of the so-called “village prose”. After reconstructing the evolution of the “peasant prose” as a specific phenomenon that emerged in the second half of the 1950s, in the article are identified the reasons that prevent Solženicyn’s story from being included in the derevenshchiki works.
Keywords: Solzhenitsyn, Thaw’s Literature, Village prose, Literary controversies, Socialist Realism
The publication of The Gulag Archipelago, despite its clearly political nature, made it possible to overcome a reductively political dimension regarding totalitarianism. The case of France was particularly significant in this sense also thanks to the interpretation of C. Lefort: once the logic of propaganda had been overcome and Solzhenitsyn’s work had been returned to literature, the essence of ideology was rediscovered as a form of thought that first and foremost denied the human factor.
Keywords: Solzhenitsyn, Lefort, totalitarianism, ideology, literature
The essay deals with the influence of the Russian writer Solzhenitsyn on the novelist and painter Michael O’Brien. The influence is to be traced above all in the prophetic mission of the writer, which is to be in service to the truth. Secondly the relation between the two authors is analysed through the quotations from Solzhenitsyn in the essayistic and literary work by Michael O’Brien. That analysis is focused on the constant presence of Cancer Ward within The father’s tale, where the characters and the stories told by Solzhenitsyn become constant element of comparison between the two.
Keywords: Michael D. O’Brien, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Solzhenitsyn’s legacy
The essay describes Solzhenitsyn’s journey through his searing debut novel in 1962, accounting horrific events of war, imprisonment and illness, which matured him as a person and a writer. This led him to discover his people and culture, and to devote his life and work to them, even after his expulsion and during his exile. The essay follows these developments with particular regard to the “truthful word”, which Solzhenitsyn tried to abide to in his literary work and life. He also proposed this principle upon his return to Russia in 1994 to aid the moral healing of the “new Russia” that had gone through the disaster of the Soviet era. The whole story is recalled by an Italian translator who has translated many of his works over the last forty years.
Keywords: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, literary translation, gulag literature
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In this Issue:
Sonia Bailini | Cristiano Furiassi | Maurizia Calusio | Silvia Gilardoni | Elena Bulygina | Tat’jana Tripol’skaja | Anna Krasnikova | Valentina Noseda | Natalja Stoyanova | Sarah Bigi | Nazarena Fazzari | Chiara Piccinini | Claudia Alborghetti | Laura Anelli | Gloria Colombo | Piet van de Craen
Sonia Bailini (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore – Milano) | L’umorismo nella traduzione in spagnolo de Il gioco delle tre carte di Marco Malvaldi
The aim of this paper is to observe how the humorous effect has been translated in the Spanish version of the novel Il gioco delle tre carte (2008) by Marco Malvaldi. The article is organised in three parts: in the first one, the theoretical framework for the translation of humour is outlined, in the second one the types of humour that characterize Malvaldi’s texts are illustrated and in the third one the translation techniques used to maintain the humorous effect of the original text are analysed.
Keywords: Humour translation, Italian-Spanish translation, Marco Malvaldi
Cristiano Furiassi (Università degli Studi di Torino) | “Drink wine, not labels”: A lexicologist’s insight into ‘Super Tuscans’
Following an overview of Super Tuscan wines, this study aims at providing a definition of the pseudo-Anglicism ‘Super Tuscan’. In addition, by resorting to lexicographic and corpus data, the frequency of ‘Super Tuscan’ is measured, its spelling variants are traced and the date of first attestation in both Italian and English is determined. Finally, this article considers whether the term ‘Super Tuscan’ might have turned, via de-terminologization, into a word also known and used by non-connoisseurs.
Keywords: corpora, dictionaries, false Anglicisms, ‘Super Tuscan’, wine terminology
Elena Bulygina – Tat’jana Tripol’skaja (Novosibirskij Gosudarstvennyj Pedagogičeskij Universitet)| Толковый словарь как манипулятивный текст
The purpose of the article is to study the Russian explanatory dictionaries of the twentieth cen- tury as a mechanism for reflecting and forming a picture of the world, ideologically verified and demanded by the country’s political power. Reflection of the political realities of the Soviet era, axiological accents, the hard border between “their” and “alien” – this is an incomplete list of tasks, the solution of which was assigned to dictionaries. Distortion of information is carried out in the following ways; 1) the concealment of individual facts; 2) the regrouping of informa- tion in order of importance, violating the logic and history of language development; 3) silence of some facts and the nomination of others; 4) repeated repetitions of ideological clichés; 5) fragmentation, that is, the representation of a fragment taken out of context that distorts the content of the whole.
Keywords: lexicography, manipulation, ideological component, evaluation semantics
Anna Krasnikova (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)| La manipolazione nell’editoria sovietica: il caso di Il’ja Sel’vinskij
The paper categorizes the most common forms of manipulation in Soviet publishing and presents a new material: the biography and the works of Ilya Selvinsky, a poet who systematically modified his already published texts, the fact that greatly and negatively influenced his literary destiny.
Keywords: manipulation in Soviet publishing, Ilya Selvinsky, Soviet literature, editors and editing, rewriting
Valentina Noseda (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | Processi manipolativi nella Russia post-sovietica: verso la creazione di una nuova immagine del nemico
Like in the past, the image of the enemy is used in today’s Russia to justify some government behaviour and manipulate citizens, obtaining their consent. This also occurs thanks to the role of a strong and persuasive leader such as the current President of the Russian Federation. In this work some of his speeches are analysed considering the following manipulative processes: presupposition violation, emotional language, metaphors and different types of fallacies. The analysis will allow us to define the features of a new image of the enemy which has emerged in post-soviet Russia.
Keywords: manipulation, propaganda, image of the enemy, fallacies, speech analysis
Nataliya Stoyanova (Università degli Studi di Milano) | La manipolazione nascosta nei segnali discorsivi ведь e же usati come attivatori di presupposizione
In this paper, we first of all clarify what is meant by manipulation from the point of view of linguistic theory, both in the Russian and in the Western traditions. Then we present some linguistic mechanisms that can convey manipulation, paying a particular attention to presupposition. Later we consider different presuppositional typologies and definitions, highlighting the function of the presupposition triggers. Finally, two Russian discourse markers, ведь and же, are analyzed through the National Russian Language Corpus (NKRJa), and a clear distinction between them is drawn, concerning their ability to convey the hidden manipulation.
Keywords: discourse markers, presupposition trigger, manipulation, Russian language, corpus analysis
Sarah Bigi (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | Parola corrotta e cura della parola: c’è scampo dalla dinamica manipolatoria?
Recently, frequent inappropriate uses of language in public discourse have been observed that remind of what the literature has often called ‘manipulation strategies’. Thus, scholars have started again di- scussing about what fosters the success of manipulation. This paper originates from the question about the possibility of identifying manipulation in the ‘here and now’ of interaction, and not only after its negative consequences have taken place. After a brief discussion of the literature on manipulation, the paper discusses the possibility of putting in place preventive and defensive strategies against manipula- tive intentions and uses of language.
Keywords: strategie manipolatorie, analisi del discorso, deliberazione
Nazarena Fazzari (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | La censura in Cina e il modello del Genitore Premuroso: analisi di un corpus
This paper analyzes the documents issued by Sarft (State Administration of Radio, Film and Television) on the management of content and language in the media in the Hu Jintao Era, in order to verify which family model of Chinese government is proposed according to Lakoff theory. We argue that the image proposed is the one of the Nurturant Father.
Keywords: Lakoff, censorship in China, political discourse, Nurturant Father, corpus linguistics
Chiara Piccinini (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | Le domande orientate e retoriche in cinese: strumento persuasivo o manipolatorio?
Rhetorical questions (fănwènjù 反问句) in Chinese language are used in communicative contexts to emphasize a sentence and convince an interlocutor of the speaker’s point of view.
Li and Thompson (1984) e Liu Yuehua et al. (2001), among other linguists, distinguish between yes/ no questions and rhetorical questions: the first are sentences occurring in a negative interrogative form (不是……吗? bú shì... ma? “isn’t it true that…?”) that underlie an utterance based on the common point of view of interlocutors, or that starts either from common knowledge or from an evidence; rhetorical questions, on the other way, are formed by interrogative pronouns and modal particles, such as 呢 ne 啊 a, occurring at the end of the utterance (i.e.: 他怎么知道呢? tā zěnme zhīdao ne? “How does he know that?”) and underlying an opposite semantic value to that expressed by interrogative pronouns, that emphasizes that value.
These interrogative sentences, both yes/no questions and rhetorical ones, are widely employed as rhetorical means of persuasion. In my contribution I would like to concentrate on the observation of some of these sentences as they occur in two corpora: one of them contains conversations registered in a class of Chinese language teaching to Italian learners and the second recorded in Taiwan, containing radio conversations on a subject of common interest (health, sports and curious facts).
I will determine if the questions observed in the two corpora show a manipulative use of the language.
Keywords: rhetorical questions, Chinese language, conversation analysis
Claudia Alborghetti (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)| Rewriting Italian social issues in English translation: Renée Reggiani and her impact on children’s literature in the 1960s
Translators of children’s literature often resort to manipulative strategies to meet the standards of children’s publishing in the receiving culture. This paper analyses the rewriting of two of Renée Reggiani’s works that address living conditions in the south of Italy during the 1960s. It argues that her image as a writer who broached topics considered taboo for a young audience has been softened in translation that omits sections of the target texts.
Keywords: children’s literature, translation, Renée Reggiani, descriptive translation studies
Laura Anelli (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | Umorismo tabù, traduzione audiovisiva e manipolazione testuale: quale testo per il pubblico italiano?
The present article focuses on textual manipulation, especially ideological manipulation, detectable in the translation of taboo humour present in some audiovisual texts to make such texts more acceptable for the receiving audience. Through a descriptive approach, three American sitcoms have been analysed – namely Friends, Will & Grace and How I Met Your Mother – in order to identify cases of ideological manipulation in the translation of the taboo humour therein contained.
Keywords: audiovisual translation, dubbing, manipulation, ideology, taboo humour
Gloria Colombo (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | “Das Stück könnte auch ‘Sprechfolterung’ heißen”. La manipolazione linguistica nel Kaspar di Peter Handke e gli albori del teatro postdrammatico
Peter Handke’s Kaspar continues the Austrian reflection on the crisis of language, which finds an emblematic expression in Hugo von Hofmannsthal’s Der Brief des Lord Chandos, but from a new point of view: The crisis of language is presented not so much as a mere consequence, but as a main cause of the crisis of the individual. The article aims at highlighting the strong connection between Kaspar – defined by Handke as an example of “linguistic torture” – and the development of the postdramatic German speaking theatre.
Keywords: Peter Handke, Kaspar, Postdramatic Theatre, Language Torture
Silvia Gilardoni (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | Gestione del discorso e mediazione dei saperi in classe CLIL
In this paper we consider the role of the teacher in the mediation and transmission of knowledge in a foreign language in CLIL context (Content and Language Integrated Learning), analysing the teacher cognition regarding classroom discourse management and teaching communication. The research is based on the analysis of teachers’ meta-didactic reflections collected through a questionnaire about self-observation of classroom discourse, administered to teachers involved in CLIL teaching at high schools in Italy. The discussion of the survey results allowed, first of all, highlighting the recurring elements in the teacher’s awareness of the use of discourse and teaching strategies in CLIL classroom communication. Starting from the teachers’ reflections, we were then able to identify some relevant issues in the perspective of teacher training and action research within the framework of CLIL innovation in the Italian school system.
Keywords: Content and Language Integrated Learning, teacher cognition, classroom discourse
Piet van de Craen (Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)) | CLIL and educational change. What CLIL teaches us about (language) learning
In Europe at all levels of education, especially in primary and early secondary education, the success of CLIL has been undeniable. It is argued that CLIL is such a powerful learning tool because implicit learning lies at the centre of its learning approach. Surprisingly enough, not too many linguists and educationalists have made this clear. This contribution examines implicit learning and considers its role in the CLIL approach. It is shown how implicit learning explains CLIL learning success and why it is important for scholars and practitioners to be aware of this.
Keywords: Language Learning, CLIL, Implicit learning
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In this Issue:
Antonella Luporini | Davide Astori | Luisa Villa | Alain Rabatel | Joseph Davis | Pier Francesco Fumagalli | Annalisa Federici
Antonella Luporini (Università degli Studi di Bologna) | Corpus-assisted Systemic Socio-Semantic Stylistics: Exploring ‘white’ and ‘red’ in Jean Rhys’ Wide Sargasso Sea
This contribution presents a corpus-assisted analysis of Wide Sargasso Sea, a postcolonial prequel to Jane Eyre. The study is part of a research project on the role of corpus linguistics in Hasan’s Systemic Socio-Semantic Stylistics (Hasan 1989). Combining quantitative findings and qualitative considerations, I focus on the Appraisal patterns (Martin – White 2005) involving white and red in Rhys’ text and examine their role in ‘symbolically articulating’ part of its deepest meaning (‘theme’).
Keywords: Corpus stylistics; Systemic Socio-Semantic Stylistics; Wide Sargasso Sea, Appraisal; white/red, other-ness.
Davide Astori (Università degli Studi di Parma) | Viaggi eterodossi fra esilio e fuga (alla ricerca di una patria inesistente) La provocazione esperantista di Teodoro Ŝvarc
Tivadar Soros, father of the more famous George, was the author of two autobiographical novels stemming from the dramatic experience of the war. Starting from the presentation of the two texts, this contribution illustrates and investigates his research – induced by the forced exile from his native land – for a new “virtual” homeland of universal peace and tolerance, inextricably linked to the Esperanto ideal of a common language for the whole mankind and to the reasons that led him to use it as a literary tool.
Keywords: Tivadar Soros, exile, war, name, esperanto.
Luisa Villa (Università degli Studi di Genova) | Mrs Felix Lorraine and Lady Caroline Lamb: Byronic Lore in Vivian Grey, Part I
Like many of his contemporaries, the young Disraeli was a Byromaniac, and his relationship with John Murray provided him with private information regarding the charismatic poet and those who had been acquainted with him. This essay focuses on the largely unexplored connection between the fictional Mrs Felix Lorraine and Lady Caroline Lamb in Vivian Grey, Part I. While highlighting a number of ‘Carolinish’ attributes and echoes, it tries to account for the relevance of Mrs Felix in the novel.
Keywords: Benjamin Disraeli, Lady Caroline Lamb, Vivian Grey; Byromania, roman à clef
Alain Rabatel, CNRS (Université Lumière Lyon 2, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon) | Prophétie, fonction prophétique et témoignage prophétique
Ce texte examine l’hypothèse d’une fonction prophétique – spirituelle ou temporelle –, définie par ses fonctions d’annonce et de mise en garde ancrées dans une vérité, annonçant comme certaine, en dépit de son caractère inouï ou de sa forme obscure, cryptée, la survenue imminente (ou déjà amorcée) d’un évènement qui fait sens, non seulement parce qu’il est extraordinaire, mais encore parce qu’il pose d’emblée la question de l’action en vue de la survie individuelle et collective. En première analyse, la prophétie est différente du témoignage par ses procédures de certification, la nature immanente ou historique de la vérité. Cependant ces différences ne gagnent rien à être durcies, sous l’angle des actes de discours ainsi que du caractère d’obligation qui s’impose au prophète comme au témoin et à la communauté à laquelle ils s’adressent. Les rapprochements sont encore plus patents lorsque les évènements rapportés sont inouïs. L’article expose ensuite la difficulté de faire entendre des témoignages prophétiques relatifs à l’univers concentrationnaire en contrastant deux tentatives différentes de surmonter la contradiction. Si Primo Levi se voit contraint de crypter poétiquement certains témoignages, Geneviève de Gaulle Anthonioz, partage son témoignage par une démarche empathique qui reconstruit le cheminement de sa compréhension du phénomène concentrationnaire, dans l’espoir que cette ré-expérienciation imaginaire permettra aux destinataires de répondre à l’appel des témoins.
Keywords : Prophecy, prophetic function, prophetic witness, diviner, witness
A semiotic, discourse-based linguistic hypothesis that bypasses the syntactic category subject and proposes instead contrasting meanings for the pronouns lui and egli provides empirical support for the critical interpretation of the novel Il Gattopardo as being anti-teleological. The hypothesis, which applies to large body of twentieth-century Italian literature, is that egli but not lui bears a linguistic meaning that ties its relevance to a verb. This linguistic hypothesis reveals a significant difference in Tomasi di Lampedusa’s portrayals of the novel’s two characters Don Fabrizio and Don Calogero: one as a character defined by who he is, the other as a character defined by what he does.
Keywords: linguistics, Gattopardo, Lampedusa, pronoun, egli, lui
Pier Francesco Fumagalli (Veneranda Biblioteca Ambrosiana)| The Arabic manuscripts in the Ambrosiana Library: A treasure for the arts, philosophy, sciences and dialogue between civilizations
The article describes the revival of humanism in Milan during the Renaissance and at the Ambrosiana Library since the beginning of the XVII century, focusing on the new fundamental perspective and programme for the Oriental Studies and in particular on the collection of Arabic and Persian manuscripts of the Ambrosiana Library.
Keywords: Ambrosiana, Oriental studies, Arabic manuscripts, Persian manuscripts, Intercultural dialogue
Annalisa Federici (Università degli Studi della Tuscia) | “I must not settle into a figure”: French Portraits of Virginia Woolf in the Shadow of Proust and Joyce
This essay analyses two significant and often interrelated aspects of Virginia Woolf’s reception in France throughout the 1920s and 1930s: its being essentially mediated by the connections that Bloomsbury maintained with Paris, and the fact that it was overshadowed by the fame of Proust and Joyce, who occupied pride of place on the French intellectual scene. Such comparison significantly contributed to the delineation of Woolf’s public image abroad and seems to justify the author’s unease about the circulation of a stereotypical portrait of herself, which would hinder her personal investigation into the fictional form.
Keywords: Virginia Woolf, reception, France, Marcel Proust, James Joyce
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In this issue:
Veronka Szőke | Alida Silletti | Monica Barsi | Sara Cigada e Caterina Garaffoni | Bernard Haidacher | Giancarmine Bongo | Elena Ballarin e Paolo Nitti |Francesca Saltamacchia e Andrea Rocci
The purpose of this essay is to analyse the economic imagery in Hamlet as it occurs in the play mainly in the form of similitudes, puns and metaphors. My point is that the economic images reproduce (and reaffirm) the central tenets of a mercantilist discourse along with its ambivalent notion of the market, which wavers between hegemonic, nationalistic attitudes and cosmopolitan and universal ones. This ambiguity plays an important role in underlining Hamlet’s ethical and epistemological deadlock in the role of revenger by tracing it, rather than to the eclipse of the late medieval order (according to Carl Scmitt’s famous thesis), to the contradictions of a modernity in progress to which the mercantilist discourse belongs.
Keywords: Mercantilism, money, goods exchange, Puritanism, Christian Humanism
Within Catherine Gore’s vast literary corpus there is an uncharacteristic novel titled Adventures in Borneo: A Tale of a Shipwreck (1849), in which the author experiments with exotic settings and adventures, a fictional subgenre in which she is not entirely comfortable. In the period of its publication, the British press was reporting and commenting on the controversial events involving Sir James Brooke, the White Rajah of Sarawak, and his anti-piracy campaign in the waters of the Malay Archipelago. In this article I try to investigate Gore’s take on such a delicate topic as British conduct in remote foreign lands, vis-à-vis alien cultures; I also refer to one of her unpublished letters, as well as to Brooke’s journal published in 1846 – most likely her primary source for the socio-cultural information on the Borneo population deployed in the novel. This article also seeks to contribute to the critical-literary debate over Catherine Gore providing a starting point for a more thorough study of her attitude towards British colonialism.
Keywords: Catherine Gore, James Brooke, Adventures in Borneo, exoticism
The reflection on human existence described by Rainer Maria Rilke in the arduous verses of the Duineser Elegien, one of the highest expressions of 20th century poetry, has been the object of a long, rigorous and illuminating meditation by Romano Guardini. To remember the great Italian-German Catholic intellectual, theologian and philosopher on the 50th anniversary of his death (1968-2018), this contribution anticipates some of the contents developed in the collection of Guardini’s writings on Rilke edited by the author, which will be published in 2019 by Morcelliana. Three are the main elements highlighted here: the academic and didactic reasons that led Guardini to reflect on Rilkes’ work; the essential outline of his hermeneutics; finally, the main reasons that caused Guardini to take a very critical stand towards Rilkes’ poetry, which represents a painful and dramatic reflection on the annihilation of the modern man.
Keywords: Romano Guardini, Rainer Maria Rilke, Elegie Duinesi
Since the inauguration of his career in 1963, with Le procès-verbal, 2008 Nobel Laureate, J.-M. Gustave Le Clézio has published over 40 works. His writing is characterized by an original style, in which the language aims to reproduce the complexity of reality. He writes about landscapes and traditions, nature (the richness of its fauna and flora), modern society – through various narrative strategies – collage techniques, lexical choices, figures of speech – that we will explore in this article.
Keywords: writing style, narrative strategies, collage techniques, lexical choices, figures of speech
Yahis Martari | Come scrivono i politici italiani su Facebook Appunti per un’analisi linguistica comparativa
This article aims at proposing a linguistic analysis of 358 posts written on Facebook (FB) by six Italian politicians. More specifically, the corpus consists of six official political Italian pages, which can be divided into two samples (three pages per sample), corresponding to two different observation moments: 1. December 2012 – January 2013 (88 post); 2. May – August 2017 (270 post). While the focus of attention is on posts, comments have also been taken into account in this survey (10 for each post). The two samples here analyzed are fairly close in time, but, given the accelerated speed of web evolution, some (micro-)diachronic remarks can be made in order to show how the Italian politicians’ communication on FB has been changed from 2013 to 2017.
In sections 1 and 2 the issue concerning the language of politics on the web (with special reference to social networks) has been introduced and the corpus has been presented in detail; in sections 3 and 4, the language and the stylistic characteristics of the two samples have been analyzed; finally, in sections 5 and 6, some concluding remarks are given, especially focusing the most recent sample.
Keywords: political communication, linguistic analysis, Facebook, writing
Valentina Noseda | La corpus revolution russa e il corpus parallelo italiano-russo: storia, criteri di compilazione e usi
This paper aims at presenting the Italian-Russian parallel corpus, expanded in 2015 and now available within the Russian National Corpus (Nacional’nyj Korpus Russkogo Jazyka). In particular, the paper describes the history, the design criteria, the phases of construction and the potential offered by this tool for language and literary studies in the field of Italian Slavistics.
Keywords: Corpus linguistics, parallel corpora, corpus design, contrastive linguistics, applied linguistics
Giulio Segato | The Home of the Brave. Sezione monografica a cura di G. Segato Hard, Stoic, Isolate, and a Killer. Appunti sul carattere americano
Questa sezione riprende alcuni degli interventi presentati al seminario di studi The Home of the Brave, svoltosi presso la sede milanese dell’Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore il 22 novembre 2016, con il contributo dei Dipartimenti di Scienze linguistiche e Letterature Straniere e di Scienze Politiche, cui vanno i miei più sentiti ringraziamenti. L’obiettivo del seminario era celebrare i duecentoquarant’anni dalla Dichiarazione d’Indipendenza degli Stati Uniti d’America (1776). In questa prospettiva, ci sembrò opportuno pensare a un titolo che esprimesse una certa solennità e, allo stesso tempo, alludesse almeno a una ‘qualità strutturale’ del carattere americano. The Home of the Brave – il terzo verso dell’inno nazionale americano, fortunatamente mai cantato – ci pareva un’espressione che centrasse abbastanza bene l’obiettivo.
This paper aims to examine the origin of the hard-boiled hero. I suggest it is possible to find his first arrival in the frontier romance created by James Fenimore Cooper in 1823 with The Pioneer, in which Natty Bumppo makes his first appearance, the real archetype of the hard-boiled detective. Then there is a second important stage: Allan Pinkerton’s narratives drawn from his real experience as a private vigilante. Pinkerton’s detectives were strong men of honor with a clear moral view, so his fictional heroes had the same features. The last influence on the hard-boiled hero is to be found in the dime novels protagonists’ evolution. If at first they were only cowboys, scouts or outlaws, at the end of XIX century they became detectives and the setting of the stories changed: no longer the landscape of the US/Mexico border but the big cities.
Keywords: Hard-boiled hero, detective novel, dime novels, J.F. Cooper, Allan Pinkerton
Starting from some definitions of ‘female heroism’ that highlight it as a problematic concept, this essay focuses on Margaret Fuller’s interest in different meanings and interpretations of the heroic ideal. Her Italian experience enables Fuller to recognize Giuseppe Mazzini as a supreme embodiment of modern heroism, as well as to explore the potential (which had already been taken into consideration in her treatise Woman in the Nineteenth Century) and the limits of a female incarnation of heroism.
Keywords: Female heroism, bravery, righteous violence
This paper aims to examine Carl Sandburg’s unusual trajectory from militant poet and socialist propagandist to standard-bearer for the American values of unity, freedom and progress. If in his first book, Chicago Poems, the author harshly criticized the American lifestyle and the capitalist system, over the years we witness a gradual transformation, which mitigates Sandburg’s controversial positions, until he became an embodiment of the founding ideals of the nation and a symbol of the American Dream.
Keywords: Sandburg, Lincoln, Chicago, America, Socialism
It is possible to download the entire journal as PDF file by clicking here, as ePub file by clicking here, and also as mobi file (Kindle format) by clicking here.
In this Issue:
Veronka Szőke | Alida Silletti | Monica Barsi | Sara Cigada e Caterina Garaffoni | Bernard Haidacher | Giancarmine Bongo | Elena Ballarin e Paolo Nitti |Francesca Saltamacchia e Andrea Rocci
The Norwegian Rune Poem has often been evaluated negatively because of an overall impression of a lack of coherence and cohesion. Analysis of the poem against the background of wisdom tradition has allowed a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in its composition. The article considers the poem in parallel with Sólarljóð and Málsháttakvæði – two poetic works deriving from the same cultural context – and aims to further analise the poem’s structure and illuminate aspects of its imagery.
Keywords: Norwegian Rune Poem, Sólarljóð, Málsháttakvæði, runic lore
Alida Silletti | ‘Aller + infinitif’ et ‘andare a + infinitif’ : effets de sens ‘illustratif’ et ‘risolutivo’
Cette contribution aborde les parcours de grammaticalisation et les effets de sens d’‘aller + infinitif’ et de ‘andare a + infinitif’ en français et en italien contemporains. A partir d’un corpus parallèle de presse, nous montrerons que les effets de sens « illustratif » de la périphrase française et « risolutivo » de la périphrase italienne ne relèvent pas d’une correspondance entre les deux périphrases mais plutôt d’un simple contact entre leurs effets de sens.
Keywords : aller + infinitive; andare a + Infinitive, grammaticalization ; illustrative and risolutivo semantic values, contrastive analysis
The contribution studies the adaptations of the textbooks for the French teaching of Mauger bleu and Mauger rouge in Italian editions at Petrini. The two Maugers are significant in the history of glottodydactics because they attest, from the 1960s to the 1970s, the transition from a grammar of the parts of speech to a grammar of structures. In Italy, we will see the same movement that is here evoked to contextualize the Mauger in the Italian publishing market.
Keywords: Glottodidactics, second language teaching, French teaching, teaching methods
Sara Cigada e Caterina Garaffoni | Teatro sentimentale e propaganda Les Victimes cloîtrées di Jacques-Marie Boutet
We outline the emotive elements in the dramatic work of Boutet (Monvel), Les Victimes cloîtrées. Linguistic and discourse analysis are based both on Christian Plantin’s methodology and on Rodolphus Agricola’s XVth century model. It appears that the sentimental component of the pièce is consistent with the ideological goal of supporting Jacobin politics and discrediting the Church, in the context of the French Revolution.
Keywords: emotive argumentation, manipulation, emotions in discourse analysis, discourse analysis and argumentation, French Revolution
André Martinet (1979) is the originator of the term ‘confix’. However, in Romance linguistics the concept has not enjoyed much popularity. In French, we find a multitude of terms for these bound morphemes, which are typically integrated in the framework of composition. Nowadays, French linguists use the abstract schema of construction morphology, in which there are no specific categories. The German-speaking literature, by contrast, has paid a great deal of attention to the phenomenon.
Keywords: confix(es), research tradition, morphology, word-formation, neoclassical compounding
Giancarmine Bongo | Allgemeine Diskursreferenz in deutschen und italienischen Einleitungen zu wissenschaftlichen Zeitschriftenartikeln
This study examines a corpus of 40 Introductions to articles published in scientific specialized journals (20 in German language, 20 in Italian language), with regard to the relation, that each scientific text has to establish with its research background. Within this relation a peculiar dimension emerges, which on the basis of the concept of discourse by Foucault could be defined as ‚General Discourse Reference‘. It is the relation with the research background as the field of the ‘already-said’, of all effective statements, without reference to specific works or authors: it is thus the possibility to establish a not intertextual relation with a universe of texts. How and in what extent is such a ‚General Discourse Reference‘ realized in the analyzed Introductions? Are there cultural differences between German and Italian articles?
Keywords: discourse reference, introductions, scientific articles, German, Italian
Elena Ballarin e Paolo Nitti | I risultati di un’indagine sull’insegnamento e sulla rappresentazione dei colori nell’ambito dell’italiano L2/LS
The essay presents the results of a survey on the teaching methods and the representation of colors in Italian as Second Language (ISL). The survey was administered to the teachers and the analysis shows that few teachers have the awareness of the lexicon complexity and the mechanisms connected to the texts. The representation of colors in different languages is contemplated by a very short number of informants, giving the idea that the transmission of the vocabulary in ISL education is a mere fact of translation between the two languages. In the light of these data, teachers should be involved in learning practices in order to understand the role of the vocabulary and the lexicon in a language and the methods for teaching it in ISL classes.
Keywords: colors, vocabulary, L2-LS, ethnolinguistics, psycholinguistics, acquisitional linguistics
Francesca Saltamacchia e Andrea Rocci | Metapragmatica della cortesia nell’Italia del primo Ottocento. La polemica sulla cortesia tra Melchiorre Gioja e Antonio Rosmini: utilitarismo o principio di carità
This article shows an example of explicit argumentation about politeness: the dispute between Melchiorre Gioja and Antonio Rosmini about the chapter Apologia della moda written by Melchiorre Gioja in the Nuovo Galateo (1820). In particular, we examine Rosmini’s Galateo de’letterati (1828) and we focus on arguments that justify Rosmini’s metapragmatics comments and fallacies.
Keywords: Politeness, argumentation, nineteenth-century, Italy, controversy, fallacy
In this Issue:
Jennifer Valcke, Amanda C. Murphy, Francesca Costa | Joanne Pagèze, David Lasagabaster | Elizabeth Long | Susanna Broggini| Robert Wilkinson, René Gabriëls | Cristina Mariotti | Francesca Helm, Fiona Dalziel
Jennifer Valcke, Amanda C. Murphy, Francesca Costa | Introduction EMI – A Tool for the Internationalisation of Higher Education
Round table moderated by Prof. Simonetta Polenghi, Professor of History of Education, Head of the Department of Education | What are we Changing when we Teach in English? Views from the Schools of Economics, Mathematics and Physics, Engineering and Linguistics
The Round Table was set up to provide a variety of answers to the same question: What are we changing when we teach in English? Representatives from four different disciplinary areas took part, three from Milan – Management, Engineering and Linguistics – and two – Maths and Physics – from Brescia. The issues that were brought up overlap to some extent, but each disciplinary area pointed out something original, indicating areas for future research. The speakers’ contributions have been edited slightly, but some elements of spoken discourse have been preserved for the sake of authenticity.
Francesca Costa | The Introduction of English as an Academic Language in a Faculty of Physics and Mathematics in Italy
The use of English as a medium of instruction at university level has increased dramatically in the last 15 years all over Europe. English-taught programmes are often imposed top-down, and this article presents one of the very few cases in which the process and decision-making have been documented, in terms of a pre-feasibility study conducted through a student questionnaire and interview with the Dean. The research is set within the Italian context of a Faculty of Mathematics and Physics. Results reveal that in general students have a positive attitude towards this implementation, but many adjustments still need to be carried out.
Keywords: EMI, English as an academic language, Mathematics and physics
Joanne Pagèze, David Lasagabaster| Teacher Development for Teaching and Learning in English in a French
Higher Education Context
Discussion of the impact of institutional initiatives on the development of EMI in the French context has been minimal due to the particular way in which EMI has emerged in France. The aim of this paper is to explore the impact of a teacher development initiative set up in 2014 at the University of Bordeaux in order to help disciplinary teachers make the transition to teaching their discipline in English. The objective here is to explore how local context is impacting this shift in teaching and learning practices through EMI.
Keywords: teacher development / EMI / France / Internationalisation
This article maps the evolution of lecturer training courses at the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia since 2011 to the present to meet the growth of English taught degree programmes being offered. It illustrates a three-pronged approach developed to deliver methodological and language instruction to Italian lecturers through three distinct “Lecturing in English” modules, outlining the rationale behind each element. It also considers the new role of the teacher trainer in training university teachers.
Keywords: English Medium Instruction, teacher education, ongoing professional development, English-taught programmes, UNIMORE.
Susanna Broggini, Amanda C. Murphy | Metadiscourse in EMI lectures: Reflections on a Small Corpus of Spoken Academic Discourse
This paper describes a qualitative study on the use of metadiscourse in EMI university courses. It adopts Noble’s simplified and restricted classification model of metadiscourse markers, adapted from Ädel, focuses on reflexive language and is applied to academic spoken discourse.
Keywords: Metadiscourse, discourse analysis, academic spoken discourse, corpus-based study, qualitative research
Robert Wilkinson, René Gabriëls | Adapting to EMI in Higher Education: Students’ Perceived Learning Strategies 341Adapting to EMI in Higher Education: Students’ Perceived Learning Strategies
To a varying extent, many universities are changing their language of instruction to English in order to position themselves in the global market of higher education. This change attracts mobile students who wish to undertake studies abroad, but they may have to adjust the way they study. The central question in the study we report here is how students perceive an effect of English-medium instruction on their learning strategies. In an exploratory study, students were interviewed about their learning strategies as a consequence of EMI, about possible inequalities in EMI and how they perceive them. The findings suggest that modification of learning strategies depends on personal agency and the learning context. The interviews reveal three types of linguistic asymmetry at the individual level under EMI. The qualitative data confirm findings of previous studies and suggest new perspectives for quantitative research on learning strategies in EMI and linguistic inequalities.
Keywords: English-medium instruction (EMI), learning strategies, language inequalities, linguistic asymmetry
Francesca Costa, Cristina Mariotti | Students’ Outcomes in English-Medium Instruction: Is there any Difference Related to Discipline?
This paper focuses on the acquisition of content in Economics and Science EMI classes taught by the same lecturers. The control group consists of L1-taught classes (Italian), whereas the experimental group consists of L2-taught classes (English). Students’ marks in two comparable written exams are analysed. Data are complemented with interviews with the lecturers. The results show that in some instances the two groups differ significantly as regards the acquisition of content.
Keywords: ICLHE, content acquisition, content presentation, English-medium instruction, Italian-medium instruction
Francesca Helm, Fiona Dalziel | Beyond the Classroom: the Impact of EMI on a University’s Linguistic Landscape
In this paper we explore the linguistic landscape of an Italian state university. A “Linguistic Landscape” refers to the language visible in public spaces, and to a transdisciplinary approach adopted in language policy studies, often in “arenas of contestation”. The EMI context can be considered such an arena; linguistic landscaping offers an exciting new methodological approach, enabling observation of the changing face of universities in their quest for ever-increasing internationalisation.
Keywords: English-Medium Instruction (EMI), Linguistic Landscape (LL), language policy, internationalisation
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In this issue:
Nataliya Stoyanova | Miriam Ravetto | Ettore Marchetti | Afsaneh Pourmazaheri | Giulio Segato | Gloria Colombo | Renata Zanin | Claudio Macagno | Giuseppe Ghini | Мауриция Калузио | Галина Жиличева
Nataliya Stoyanoya | Struttura del discorso negli apprendenti italofoni di russo: analisi testuale comparata russo-italiano
This article presents the results of a discourse analysis of Russian-learning texts by italophones. The discourse structure was examined from the point of view of the preferences for discourse relations on various acquisitional stages and from the point of view of hierarchization. Furthermore the grade of repartition of situations and the grade of the discourse structures complexity were analysed, allowing us thus to characterize the textuality of the considered acquisitional varieties compared to the native Russian and Italian.
Keywords: discourse analysis, Russian language, compared textuality, acquisitional varieties, linguospecific patterns
Miriam Ravetto | «Come si dice?» / «Wie heisst das?» – Strategie di ricerca lessicale in visite guidate con italiano e tedesco L2
The paper investigates word search sequences in a corpus of guided tours, in which tourist guides speak Italian and German as foreign languages. Italian and German are, on the contrary, the native languages of the group of tourists. Using the approach of Conversation Analysis, the study describes and classifies the word search dynamics and strategies, through which tourist guides try to find the problematic word.
Keywords: word search, Conversation Analysis, touristic communication, interactional linguistics.
Ettore Marchetti | “Boia imperialisti, spie di regime e corrotti buffoni”. La lingua dei comunicati delle brigate rosse durante il Sequestro Moro
On March 16th 1978, Italy goes through one of the worst pages in its history, when the Brigate Rosse (Red Brigades), the armed party, kidnap the politician Aldo Moro and brutally kill five bodyguards; the BR thus begin their swan song. During the fifty-five days of imprisonment of the president of the DC (Christian Democratic Party), the terrorists elaborate and issue nine statements in which they illustrate the motivations and strategies of both the kidnapping and the armed struggle. It is definitely one of the events that has most impressed the public opinion since the second postwar, and that a large bibliography keeps examining. However, one aspect has always remained less explored than others: the linguistic one. Through a syntactic, morphological, and lexical analysis this article gives an account of the salient features of the statements, including the rhetorical devices and the communication strategies used by the authors. The linguistic observation highlights the complexity of the nine texts, and the opportunity to consider them as a coherent corpus of writings that share common traits which, although they do not constitute a technical language, still define a peculiar way to communicate of a specific terrorist group. The present work is inspired by a general enthusiasm of the recent Italian studies for the Seventies and for the so called ‘Years of Lead’, and is meant to suggest a particular attention to the role of language in the study of terrorism and of political violence of that period.
Keywords: Red Brigades, statements, semantic fields, expressivity, lexical and syntactic complexity
Ce travail de recherche s’interroge sur la représentation discursive des référents exotiques filtrée par un regard stéréotypé dans les récits de trois voyageurs français en Orient de la première moitié du XIXe siècle. Les énonciateurs-voyageurs, placés dans un contexte linguistique et culturel asymétrique, tentent de saisir et de transcrire leurs observations sur le terrain étranger en fonction de leur intellect, de leur cognition et de leur expérience. Une série d’éléments marqués par l’altérité viennent modifier la représentation que l’auteur-voyageur donne du référent et de l’univers référentiel auquel il est confronté. C’est à cette façon « réductrice » de voir les référents issus d’un univers différent et à l’intervention de la subjectivité de l’auteur que nous nous intéressons dans cette étude. Nous analysons les effets discursifs produits par l’usage des ressources linguistiques ainsi que par les positionnements énonciatifs des auteurs-voyageurs. Cette approche homogénéisante et généralisante de la perception de l’Autre se fait au travers des moules préconstruits et une démarche subjective dans la culture réceptrice que nous tenterons de voir à l’aide des outils d’analyse langagiers et discursifs dans les récits de voyage de Goupil Fesquet (1844), de Rémy Aucher-Eloy (1843) et de J.M. Tancoigne (1819) en Orient, notamment en Perse.
Keywords: stereotypy, alterity, travel literature, ethnotype, representation
With the exception of No Country for Old Men, the Vietnam War has never appeared openly in Cormac McCarthy’s novels, but it has nevertheless left a deep trace on his early work (Child of God, Suttree, and Blood Meridian). Blood Meridian in particular shows, despite his western setting, an imaginary influenced by the military-political experience of Vietnam. A few scenes in the book in fact read more like a war novel rather than a western, and the connection is even deeper than that. The Vietnam novels typically have some concerns – such as the chaotic descriptions of the battle, the explosion of meaningless violence often perpetrated by friendly fire, and the guerrilla warfare – which are to be found at their best in Blood Meridian. My essay discusses these issues through a comparison with a western movie often associated with the Vietnam War: Sam Peckinpah’s The Wild Bunch.
Keywords: Cormac McCarthy, Blood Meridian, Vietnam War, The Wild Bunch, Western, war novel
Gloria Colombo | Wie wenn sich eine einzige hohe aber starke stimme bilde: lingua e stile nel romanzo das scHLOSS di Franz Kafka
While writing Das Schloß (1922), Kafka not only tried to eliminate the most typical elements of Southern German, Viennese German, Czech and Yiddish in order to draw near to the elegance of Classicism, but also shaped the narrative style on the basis of Biblical Hebrew. The accent placed by the latter on parataxis and repetition led him to create a sort of acoustic hallucination, which – as well as the influence of Biblical Hebrew on the novel – has so far been ignored by Kafka scholars.
Keywords: Franz Kafka, The Castle, Prager Deutsch, Hebrew Bible, acoustic hallucination
Elfriede Gerstl can be truly considered a ‘minor’ Austrian poet who spent a lifelong search for her own literary voice at the margins of the turmoil of the literary avant-garde in postwar Vienna. Existential insecurity, irony and a superb command of the German language come together with a highly emotional way of speaking. Elfriede Gerstl’s poems and the recordings of her poems can be successfully used in teaching pronunciation and intonation to Italian learners of German.
Keywords: pattern and culture, prosody, idiomatic and prosodic coinage, poetry in language classes
In Darya Dontsova’s detective novels the categories of terrible and tragic do not play a significant role but, on the contrary, are deliberately attenuated through the deployment of a number of different strategies that make it impossible to read these novels “без улыбки на лице” [without a smile on one’s face].
Starting from the fundamental works of Bergson (Le rire), Freud (Der Humor) and Pirandello (L’umorismo) and from a series of theoretical concepts accounting for the workings of humour, this paper analyses the various devices employed by Dontsova, the undisputed “queen of the ironic detective story”, to create comic effects.
Keywords: Darya Dontsova, detective story, humour, irony, Humor Studies.
Giuseppe Ghini | “L’eterna influenza francese” Classici russi per il tramite del francese all’alba del Terzo millennio
he article deals with a bad practice introduced anew in Italian publishing: translations from Russian through intermediate French versions. Three Italian translations – The trial of Brodsky, a Chekhov’s and a Grossman’s short story – are shown to be dependent from French versions, then causes and consequences of their lexical and stylistic detachment from the original text are analyzed, a detachment inescapable in second-hand translations, on principle alien to a philological approach.
Keywords: Second hand translations, The trial of Joseph Brodsky, The story of an unknown man, In the main line of attack
Мауриция Калузио | Василий Гроссман. и первый опыт художественного исследования Гулага (О повести Все течет…)
It is difficult to determine which genre Vasily Grossman’s last work Everything flows (1955-1963) belongs to. In the last decades of the XX century, literary critics noticed how this work completely lacks a plot and a fabula. Some researchers have even refused to call this text a ‘literary work’. In this article, an attempt has been made to show how Grossman, when talking about themes that were still inaccessible for that time (the system of labour camps, Holodomor and so on), created a completely new and audacious way of narrating. Grossman’s apparent contemptuous approach to the rules of narration in Everything flows is actually generated by the need to tell without lies the indescribable and ineffable human journey in the camps. In this article, we analyze the motifs of travel and dream, as well as the figure of preterition, which Grossman uses to express his dissent from the falsity of socialist realism.
Keywords: Vasily Grossman, Everything flows, Gulag literature, Russian literature
Галина Жиличева | “Ясность” и “связность” как смысловые доминанты нарратива В. Гроссмана (“За правое дело”, “Жизнь и судьба”)
This paper deals with the dominant ideas of the narrative structure of Vasily Grossman’s novels. The semantic fields of the concepts of ‘clearness’ (‘yasnost’’) and ‘connectedness’ (‘svyaznost’’) are being analyzed. In Grossman’s dilogy, these concepts are being regarded as the signs of the plot situation of ‘revelation’.
This article suggests that the words “yasnyi” (clear, serene, obvious), “prozrachnyi” (transparent), “svet” (light), “svyaz’” (bond, link, connection), “nit’” (thread) and their cognates can be described as overdetermined signs due to their frequent usage in Grossman’s dilogy. Such signs are related to the basic metaphors of European literature (the correlation of world, text and fabric; metaphors of vision) and, therefore, they are the crucial parts of Grossman’s dialogue with previous literature tradition. The usage of the concepts of ‘clearness’ and ‘connectedness’ emphasizes the sophisticated interaction between the two parts of the communicative structure of the novels – between the discourse of ‘revelation’ and the discourse of ‘agitation’. Moreover, those concepts can also bear a metanarrative significance. Grossman’s narrative manifests the urge of the ultimate ‘connectedness’ and ‘clearness’ while showing the ‘invisible’ threads and ‘clear’ truth.
Keywords: Grossman, narrative, repetition, discourse strategy
Esthétiques et idéologie dans la narration des monuments
Nous proposons de consacrer une section thématique du numéro 2/2018 de la revue “L’Analisi Linguistica e Letteraria” aux expressions d’écriture créative inspirées par les monuments, dans le but de mieux comprendre comment et pourquoi la re/construction de leurs genèses spécifiques, la description des structures architectoniques, le déchiffrage de leur symbologie, les histoires des commissionnaires et des artistes qui ont contribué à leur réalisation peuvent engendrer des interprétations ou des “surinterprétations”, qui convergent dans la rédaction de textes de différente nature: des essais, des contes, des nouvelles, des romans historiques ou des poèmes.
Chaque article étudiera les formes que revêtent les reconstructions des monuments de la part des auteurs, qui révèlent leurs évaluations esthétiques ou idéologiques sur l’objet de la description.
On étudiera notamment la narration de monuments tels que :
- des bâtiments polysémiques, enracinés en un lieux spécifique et en un contexte historique précis, mais ouverts aussi à de multiples extensions interculturelles ;
- des formes de construction, restructuration ou de contestation des identités historiques et des mémoires culturelles ;
- des “moteurs de l’imaginaire”, qui suscitent des figures et des événements de nature mythique.
On vise à sélectionner des articles centrés sur la narration de monuments en de multiples pays, dans le but de tracer une vaste topographie internationale du sujet.
Les Collègues intéressés sont invités à rédiger un résumé en anglais de 400 mots maximum, accompagné de 3-5 mots-clé, et à l’envoyer avant le 15 novembre 2017 a Marisa Verna (email@example.com) et à Paola Spinozzi (firstname.lastname@example.org).
L’acceptation de l’article sera communiquée avant le 30 novembre 2017. L’échéance pour l’envoi du texte complet est fixée au 1er mars 2018.
Les articles ne devront pas dépasser les 50.000 caractères (espaces inclus) et devront être conformes aux Normes éditoriales de la revue, téléchargeables à l’adresse URL: www.analisilinguisticaeletteraria.eu.
La publication est prévue pour décembre 2018.
In questo numero:
Luisa Camaiora | Federico Bellini | Laila Paracchini | Carla Vergaro | Michela Murano | Sibilla Cantarini e Gaston Gross | Marco Budassi | Rebecca Schar | Nazarena Fazzari
L’articolo analizza la presenza dell’aspetto economico nel Romeo and Juliet di Shakespeare, esaminando alcune tematiche quali il denaro e la ricchezza, la proprietà e le procedure legali, i contratti e l’eredità, il mercantilismo e la navigazione, il significato e la rilevanza dell’oro. L’aspetto monetario è ritenuto contribuire alla creazione di un’intelaiatura di stime esplicite o implicite che riguardano il concetto di valore e sono funzionali al mantenimento di una consapevolezza valutativa.
Keywords: Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, money, economic motifs
Federico Bellini | Charity, Melancholy, and the Protestant Ethic in Herman Melville’s Bartleby and Cock-A-Doodle-Doo!
Relying on Max Weber’s and Colin Campbell’s description of the Spirit of Capitalism, I plan to interpret the narrators of Melville’s Bartleby and Cock-A-Doodle-Doo! as embodying two complementary aspects of the same ethical attitude informing such spirit. This is characterized by the oscillation between sentimentalism and individualism, charity and egoism, idealism and pragmatism, which Melville detected in the everyman of his time. In particular, I will focus on the references to the theological debate on free will and to the theme of melancholy as pivotal elements to comprehend Melville’s insight. Finally, I will show how Merrymusk and Bartleby, the two other main characters of the stories, may be seen as representing Melville’s attempt to question the American society of his time.
Keywords: Herman Melville, Bartleby, melancholy, charity, protestant ethic
Il presente lavoro offre una mappatura relativa allo sviluppo degli studi di Internet Linguistics in Russia negli ultimi quindici anni. Grazie all’analisi di molti materiali esistenti, il contributo descrive le principali linee di ricerca verso cui, in ambito russo, si è orientata l’indagine sul rapporto tra la diffusione di Internet e il manifestarsi di nuove forme d’uso della lingua.
Keywords: Russian language of Internet, Internet linguistics in Russia, Russian lexicon of the Internet, Russian net-discourse, virtual genres in Runet
Nelle analisi del Modell of Christian Charity, il sermone che John Winthrop pronunciò nel 1630, molto è stato detto relativamente al contesto storico-culturale alla base della produzione del testo. L’analisi proposta in questo saggio si concentra fondamentalmente sul testo, partendo dal presupposto che la sua essenza possa essere analizzata investigando ciò che, in prospettiva azionale, il testo ‘fa’ in uno specifico dominio del discorso. L’approccio utilizzato è dunque pragmatico e basato sulla teoria degli atti linguistici. Esso prende in considerazione il contesto, sia nella dimensione oggettiva che cognitiva, ed esplora in che modo il testo del Modell svolga la sua funzione in un determinato ambito discorsivo. L’analisi considera tre livelli illocutori: il livello degli atti linguistici, la combinazione degli atti linguistici in unità superiori che chiamiamo funzioni testuali, e la combinazione di queste funzioni testuali in un determinato profilo funzionale. Particolare attenzione viene data al livello intermedio delle funzioni testuali poiché esse, in particolare, mettono in luce le caratteristiche distintive del testo quale esemplare di un particolare genere. L’analisi è finalizzata a mostrare il modo in cui Winthrop crea i motivi per una azione collettiva attraverso l’uso magistrale del profilo funzionale del genere sermone, combinato con l’uso, altrettanto magistrale, della polisemia lessicale. Il risultato è un testo in cui tout se tient, e che è unanimemente considerato uno dei testi fondativi della letteratura e della cultura americana.
Keywords: Winthrop, sermon, illocutionary levels, text functions
Objets culturels, les dictionnaires sont le produit de la période qui les fait naìtre : « Alors mème qu’ils semblent destinés à fixer les savoirs, ils ne sont en vérité, à l’échelle du temps, que des ins- tantanés » (Pruvost, 2006). Lenregistrement de mots nouveaux et l’évolution de leur traitement dans les dictionnaires généraux représentent donc le reflet de l’émergence de nouvelles réalités et de leurs changements au sein d’une société. Dans notre communication, nous nous proposons de retracer la présence évidente et en filigrane des mots écologie et environnement, ainsi que de leurs dérivés et des composés avec éco-, dans cinq éditions du Petit Robert (1ère éd. 1967) qui s’étalent sur plus de 40 ans. Le relevé des entrées au niveau de la macrostructure sera suivi de l’analyse de l’évolution de quelques articles (éco-, écolo, écologie and environnement) ; enfin, nous évaluerons l’affirmation progressive de la marque de domaine écol.
Keywords: monolingual lexicography, French lexicography (20th century), ecology, environment, derivational field
Sibilla Cantarini e Gaston Gross | Forme di espressione della causalità nel confronto francese-tedesco
Il presente contributo è uno studio tipologico delle forme di espressione della causa in francese e tedesco. Si descrivono molteplici mezzi linguistici che attualizzano la causalità. In modo particolare, sono prese in esame la causa a effetto e la causa esplicativa, di cui si descrivono caratteristiche sintattiche e semantiche. La disamina riguarda diversi tipi di meccanismi alle base della causalità, nella fattispecie la metafora, l’inferenza e l’enunciazione. Si osserva quindi che la causalità non è riconducibile nelle lingue considerate ad una definizione unica.
Keywords: cause to effect, explicative cause, metaphor, inference, utterance
Cifra caratteristica dell’italiano neo-standard sono tratti linguistici una volta appartenenti al sub-standard, come il ‘che’ polivalente. In questo lavoro mi sono occupato di valutare se sia possibile o meno rintracciare il ‘che’ polivalente in un corpus annotato solamente per part of speech. Dai dati emerge come le sotto-tipologie di ‘che’ polivalente di tipo ‘giustappositivo’ siano estraibili dal corpus tramite query, mentre le sotto-tipologie di tipo ‘restrittivo’ non lo siano.
Keywords: corpus linguistics, POS-tagging, polyvalent use of che, neo-standard Italian, syntax
Based on the debate on children’s ability to produce argumentative discourse in different educational settings, this paper provides further support for the fact that small children are able to support their opinions with arguments. In particular, the paper makes a case in point on children’s appeal to definitional loci, when supporting their standpoints. The analysis of their reasoning’s implicit components shows how children apply different definitional arguments.
Keywords: adult-children interaction, argumentation, definition, small children’s speech
Nazarena Fazzari | Tra stabilità sociale e pornografia: giochi di parole sovversivi e armonizzazione su Internet nell’era Hu Jintao
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the policies adopted by the government of Hu Jintao (2002-2012) about the Internet. Such laws have been partially translated into Italian. Their aim alternates between the fight against pornography and the protection of social stability. The ‘digital resistance’ attempts to evade censorship through homophony, e.g. through the Baidu ten mythical creatures, the most famous being Caonima.
Keywords: Internet in China, digital resistance, harmonious society, caonima, censorship
In questo numero:
Elisa Bolchi | Paola Nardi | Erica Maggioni | Elisa Ramazzina | Laura Bignotti | Davide Vago | Federica Locatelli | Vittoria Prencipe | Franco Lonati | Daniela Fargione | Francesco Toniolo | Caterina Allais | Costanza Cucchi | Sonia Piotti | Nataly Botero
Si presenta qui un’intensa pagina di prosa letteraria tratta da La Montagne de la dernière chance, nella quale lo scrittore André Bucher descrive un rude paesaggio alpino, i cui elementi naturali (rocce, crepacci, acque e piante) sembrano animarsi, emanare grida allarmate, assumere compor¬tamenti non dissimili da quelli dell’uomo. Il vitalismo che anima la terra, anche nel senso delle urla che essa emette nei confronti della specie che oggi più che mai sembra minacciarla – quella umana – ci pare un’introduzione, sintetica e unitaria, ai temi che sono affrontati in questo nu¬mero monografico della Rivista, che porta il titolo Ecocritica ed ecodiscorso. Nuove reciprocità tra umanità e Pianeta. Questo testo ci è stato gentilmente concesso dall’Autore, che ringraziamo sentitamente.
Prendendo spunto da un passo del Sistema periodico in cui Levi definisce Dio un “maestro di polimerizzazioni” che non ama le sostanze “troppo incorruttibili”, questo saggio discute il tema della responsabilità ambientale e della trascendenza in relazione all’ecologia. In particolare, ci si sofferma sul pensiero di H. Jonas e sul legame che connette l’idea di responsabilità ambientale in Das Prinzip Verantwortung (1979) al pensiero dell’impotenza di Dio in Der Gottesbegriff nach Auschwitz (1987). Il saggio si conclude considerando le implicazioni di questi concetti per le en¬vironmental humanities, in connessione con i discorsi sulla giustizia ambientale (la slow violence di R. Nixon) e le nuove ontologie degli iper-oggetti (la object-oriented-ontology di Morton). Idea fondamentale è che la letteratura, specie quando ci parla della materialità e del nostro rapporto con il non umano, è una voce importante nell’orizzonte immanente/trascendente del nostro essere ambientale.
Keywords: Environmental humanities, ethics, ecology, transcendence, Hans Jonas, Primo Levi
The three main settings of McEwan’s Solar, a novel described as “the first great global-warming novel” (Walsh 2010) are significant: from London, to the Artic Pole, up to the desert in New Mexico, these places are all described through the interior monologue of the anti-hero Michael Beard, a character allegorical of humanity’s greed for selfish over-consumption. As Beard moves in the real environment only through the non-places of supermodernity (Augé), the paper ana¬lyses the descriptions of settings to underline how McEwan uses them to write about climate- change in a new “novelistic” way (McEwan).
Keywords: Ian McEwan, ecocriticism, Solar, places, environment
Paola A. Nardi, “Direction? … There was no direction. The prairie stretched to the end of the world”. American Land and the Pioneer Woman
Black Soil, a novel written by an Irish pioneer woman, tells about her arrival and settlement in the Iowa prairies in the second half of the 19th century. The goal of my essay is to investigate the strategies the immigrant woman Nell Connor adopts to survive on the American frontier.
Keywords: American West, the frontier, the Pioneer Woman, space, place, ecocriticism
Erica Maggioni, “Earth! have they gone into you?”
An Ecocritical Reading of the Relationship Between Man, Nature and War in Isaac Rosenberg’s Poems