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Issue 2/2019

 In this Issue:

Sonia Bailini | Cristiano Furiassi | Maurizia Calusio | Silvia Gilardoni | Elena Bulygina | Tat’jana Tripol’skaja | Anna Krasnikova | Valentina Noseda | Natalja Stoyanova | Sarah Bigi | Nazarena Fazzari | Chiara Piccinini | Claudia Alborghetti | Laura Anelli | Gloria Colombo | Piet van de Craen


Essays

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DOWNLOAD dell'articolo Sonia Bailini (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore – Milano) | L’umorismo nella traduzione in spagnolo de Il gioco delle tre carte di Marco Malvaldi

The aim of this paper is to observe how the humorous effect has been translated in the Spanish version of the novel Il gioco delle tre carte (2008) by Marco Malvaldi. The article is organised in three parts: in the first one, the theoretical framework for the translation of humour is outlined, in the second one the types of humour that characterize Malvaldi’s texts are illustrated and in the third one the translation techniques used to maintain the humorous effect of the original text are analysed.

Keywords: Humour translation, Italian-Spanish translation, Marco Malvaldi
DOWNLOAD dell'articolo Cristiano Furiassi (Università degli Studi di Torino) | “Drink wine, not labels”: A lexicologist’s insight into ‘Super Tuscans

Following an overview of Super Tuscan wines, this study aims at providing a definition of the pseudo-Anglicism ‘Super Tuscan’. In addition, by resorting to lexicographic and corpus data, the frequency of ‘Super Tuscan’ is measured, its spelling variants are traced and the date of first attestation in both Italian and English is determined. Finally, this article considers whether the term ‘Super Tuscan’ might have turned, via de-terminologization, into a word also known and used by non-connoisseurs.

Keywords: corpora, dictionaries, false Anglicisms, ‘Super Tuscan’, wine terminology
DOWNLOAD dell'articolo Bona Cambiaghi | In memoriam Cristina Bosisio 
DOWNLOAD dell'articolo Maurizia Calusio – Silvia Gilardoni (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | Introduzione
DOWNLOAD dell'articolo Elena Bulygina – Tat’jana Tripol’skaja (Novosibirskij Gosudarstvennyj Pedagogičeskij Universitet)| Толковый словарь как манипулятивный текст

The purpose of the article is to study the Russian explanatory dictionaries of the twentieth cen- tury as a mechanism for reflecting and forming a picture of the world, ideologically verified and demanded by the country’s political power. Reflection of the political realities of the Soviet era, axiological accents, the hard border between “their” and “alien” – this is an incomplete list of tasks, the solution of which was assigned to dictionaries. Distortion of information is carried out in the following ways; 1) the concealment of individual facts; 2) the regrouping of informa- tion in order of importance, violating the logic and history of language development; 3) silence of some facts and the nomination of others; 4) repeated repetitions of ideological clichés; 5) fragmentation, that is, the representation of a fragment taken out of context that distorts the content of the whole.

Keywords: lexicography, manipulation, ideological component, evaluation semantics

DOWNLOAD dell'articolo Anna Krasnikova (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)| La manipolazione nell’editoria sovietica: il caso di Il’ja Sel’vinskij

The paper categorizes the most common forms of manipulation in Soviet publishing and presents a new material: the biography and the works of Ilya Selvinsky, a poet who systematically modified his already published texts, the fact that greatly and negatively influenced his literary destiny.

Keywords: manipulation in Soviet publishing, Ilya Selvinsky, Soviet literature, editors and editing, rewriting
DOWNLOAD dell'articolo Valentina Noseda (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | Processi manipolativi nella Russia post-sovietica: verso la creazione di una nuova immagine del nemico

Like in the past, the image of the enemy is used in today’s Russia to justify some government behaviour and manipulate citizens, obtaining their consent. This also occurs thanks to the role of a strong and persuasive leader such as the current President of the Russian Federation. In this work some of his speeches are analysed considering the following manipulative processes: presupposition violation, emotional language, metaphors and different types of fallacies. The analysis will allow us to define the features of a new image of the enemy which has emerged in post-soviet Russia.

Keywords: manipulation, propaganda, image of the enemy, fallacies, speech analysis
DOWNLOAD dell'articoloNataliya Stoyanova (Università degli Studi di Milano) | La manipolazione nascosta nei segnali discorsivi ведь e же usati come attivatori di presupposizione

In  this paper,  we first of all clarify what is meant by manipulation from the point of view       of linguistic theory, both in the Russian and in the Western  traditions. Then we present  some linguistic mechanisms that  can  convey  manipulation,  paying  a  particular  attention  to presupposition. Later we consider different presuppositional typologies and definitions, highlighting the function of the presupposition triggers. Finally, two Russian discourse markers, ведь and же, are analyzed through the National Russian Language Corpus (NKRJa), and a clear distinction between them is drawn, concerning their ability to convey the hidden manipulation.

Keywords: discourse markers, presupposition trigger, manipulation, Russian language, corpus analysis
DOWNLOAD dell'articolo Sarah Bigi (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | Parola corrotta e cura della parola: c’è scampo dalla dinamica manipolatoria?

Recently, frequent inappropriate uses of language in public discourse have been observed that remind of what the literature has often called ‘manipulation strategies’. Thus, scholars have started again di- scussing about what fosters the success of manipulation. This paper originates from the question about the possibility of identifying manipulation in the ‘here and now’ of interaction, and not only after its negative consequences have taken place. After a brief discussion of the literature on manipulation, the paper discusses the possibility of putting in place preventive and defensive strategies against manipula- tive intentions and uses of language.

Keywords: strategie manipolatorie, analisi del discorso, deliberazione
DOWNLOAD dell'articolo Nazarena Fazzari (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | La censura in Cina e il modello del Genitore Premuroso: analisi di un corpus 

This paper analyzes the documents issued by Sarft (State Administration of Radio, Film and Television) on the management of content and language in the media in the Hu Jintao Era, in order to verify which family model of Chinese government is proposed according to Lakoff theory. We argue that the image proposed is the one of the Nurturant Father.

Keywords: Lakoff, censorship in China, political discourse, Nurturant Father, corpus linguistics
DOWNLOAD dell'articolo Chiara Piccinini (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | Le domande orientate e retoriche in cinese: strumento persuasivo o manipolatorio?

Rhetorical questions (fănwènjù 反问句) in Chinese language are used in communicative contexts to emphasize a sentence and convince an interlocutor of the speaker’s point of view.

Li and Thompson (1984) e Liu Yuehua et al. (2001), among other linguists, distinguish between yes/ no questions and rhetorical questions: the first are sentences occurring in a negative interrogative form (不是……吗? shì... ma? “isn’t it true that…?”) that underlie an utterance based on the common point of view of interlocutors, or that starts either from common knowledge or from an evidence; rhetorical questions, on the other way, are formed by interrogative pronouns and modal particles, such as 呢 nea, occurring at the end of the utterance (i.e.: 他怎么知道呢? zěnme zhīdao ne? “How does he know that?”) and underlying an opposite semantic value to that expressed by interrogative pronouns, that emphasizes that value.

These interrogative sentences, both yes/no questions and rhetorical ones, are widely employed as rhetorical means of persuasion. In my contribution I would like to concentrate on the observation of some of these sentences as they occur in two corpora: one of them contains conversations registered in a class of Chinese language teaching to Italian learners and the second recorded in Taiwan, containing radio conversations on a subject of common interest (health, sports and curious facts).

I will determine if the questions observed in the two corpora show a manipulative use of the language.

Keywords: rhetorical questions, Chinese language, conversation analysis
DOWNLOAD dell'articolo Claudia Alborghetti  (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)| Rewriting Italian social issues in English translation: Renée Reggiani and her impact on children’s literature in the 1960s

Translators of children’s literature often resort to manipulative strategies to meet the standards of children’s publishing in the receiving culture. This paper analyses the rewriting of two of Renée Reggiani’s works that address living conditions in the south of Italy during the 1960s. It argues that her image as a writer who broached topics considered taboo for a young audience has been softened in translation that omits sections of the target texts.

Keywords: children’s literature, translation, Renée Reggiani, descriptive translation studies
DOWNLOAD dell'articolo Laura Anelli (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | Umorismo tabù, traduzione audiovisiva e manipolazione testuale: quale testo per il pubblico italiano?

The present article focuses on textual manipulation, especially ideological manipulation, detectable in the translation of taboo humour present in some  audiovisual  texts  to  make such texts more acceptable for the receiving audience. Through a descriptive approach, three American sitcoms have been analysed – namely Friends, Will & Grace and How I Met Your Mother – in order to identify cases of ideological manipulation in the translation of the taboo humour therein contained.

Keywords: audiovisual translation, dubbing, manipulation, ideology, taboo humour
DOWNLOAD dell'articolo Gloria Colombo (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | “Das Stück könnte auch ‘Sprechfolterung’ heißen”. La manipolazione linguistica nel Kaspar di Peter Handke e gli albori del teatro postdrammatico

Peter Handke’s Kaspar continues the Austrian reflection on the crisis of language, which finds an emblematic expression in Hugo von Hofmannsthal’s Der Brief des Lord Chandos, but from a new point of view: The crisis of language is presented not so much as a mere consequence, but as a main cause of the crisis of the individual. The article aims at highlighting the strong connection between Kaspar – defined by Handke as an example of “linguistic torture” – and the development of the postdramatic German speaking theatre.

Keywords: Peter Handke, Kaspar, Postdramatic Theatre, Language Torture
DOWNLOAD dell'articolo Silvia Gilardoni (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore) | Gestione del discorso e mediazione dei saperi in classe CLIL

In this paper we consider the role of the teacher in the mediation and transmission of knowledge in a foreign language in CLIL context (Content and Language Integrated Learning), analysing the teacher cognition regarding classroom discourse management and teaching communication. The research is based on the analysis of teachers’ meta-didactic reflections collected through a questionnaire about self-observation of classroom discourse, administered to teachers involved in CLIL teaching at high schools in Italy. The discussion of the survey results allowed, first of all, highlighting the recurring elements in the teacher’s awareness of the use of discourse and teaching strategies in CLIL classroom communication. Starting from the teachers’ reflections, we were then able to identify some relevant issues in the perspective of teacher training and action research within the framework of CLIL innovation in the Italian school system.

Keywords: Content and Language Integrated Learning, teacher cognition, classroom discourse
DOWNLOAD dell'articolo Piet van de Craen (Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)) | CLIL and educational change. What CLIL teaches us about (language) learning

In Europe at all levels of education, especially in primary and early secondary education, the success of CLIL has been undeniable. It is argued that CLIL is such a powerful learning tool because implicit learning lies at the centre of its learning approach. Surprisingly enough, not too many linguists and educationalists have made this clear. This contribution examines implicit learning and considers its role in the CLIL approach. It is shown how implicit learning explains CLIL learning success and why it is important for scholars and practitioners to be aware of this.

Keywords: Language Learning, CLIL, Implicit learning
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