Dans ce numéro:
L. Gebert – A. Kreisberg – I. Kuznecova – R. G. Tirado – Z. Guentcheva – A. Lentovskaja – I. Kobozeva – F. Biagini – O. Inkova – M. C. Gatti – A. Bonola – R. Govorucho – M. Isola
Lucyna Gebert, Acquisizione dell’aspetto nelle lingue slave e romanze [Усвоениe вида в славянских и романских языках]
The paper presents existing research on aspect acquisition in Romance and Slavic languages learned as L1 and L2. It includes also works concerning ‘incomplete acquisition’ of American Russian. All learners exhibit a striking regularity when acquiring aspect in both groups of languages: they first learn perfective aspect with past tense telic verbs and only later on do they extend it to atelic verbs, whereas the imperfective is used in the initial stage with atelic verbs and then with telic ones. Such studies demonstrate that both the lexical classes distinction and the separation between lexical and grammatical aspect are cognitively motivated.
Alina Kreisberg, L’uso dei tempi passati in alcune lingue slave e romanze in un’ottica glottodidattica [Употребление прошедших времен в некоторых славянских и романс-ких языках с дидактической точки зрения]
The article stems from the observation of the most common mistakes made by Slavic learners when using the past tenses of Romance languages. The aim of the article is to show that the majority of these mistakes is due to a wrong identification between the Slavic category of perfect and imperfect aspect and the categories of tense and aspect in the Romance languages. In spite of the similarities they display at the level of the parole, they are structured according to different principles at the level of the langue: Romance languages focus on whether an action has occurred before the time of reference vs Slavic languages, which focus on the result of the action.
Irina Kuznecova, Caratteristiche aspettuali e temporali del verbo francese e russo: analisi contrastiva [Видовременные характеристики французского глагола в сопоставле-нии с русским]
The author’s arguments strongly indicate that tense anteriority is of primary importance for the French verb’s categorial system as it is the case for the aspect opposition in Russian. That is why the system of equivalences suggested by the French linguists: simple tenses of the French verb – imperfect aspect of the Russian verb and composed tenses of the French verb – perfect aspect of the Russian verb, covers only 90% of the cases. The other cases do confirm the author’s statement about the primary significations of the verb categories in the compared languages.
Rafael Guzman Tirado, Sobre el aspecto verbal en ruso y en espanol [О глагольном виде в русском и испанском языках]
The article is devoted to the research of aspect in Russian and Spanish with the help of A.V. Bondarko’s theory of Functional grammar, based on the concept of functional-semantic field. Aspectuality is seen as the main concept to compare in both languages. As a result of the research new ideas for the recognition of aspect as a morphological category in Spanish are proposed.
Zlatka Guentcheva, Referentiels aspecto-temporels: imparfait et aoriste en bulgare et imparfait et passe simple en francais [Видовременная референциальность: имперфект и аорист в бoлгарс-ком языке, и imparfait и passe simple вo французском языкe]
The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that aspectuality and temporality have scope over the entire predicative relation, giving it aspectual specification which is integrated in the temporal frames of reference by specifying the relations therein (concomitance, anteriority, posteriority, succession,…). The discussion will be conducted, in line with cognitive linguistic research, within the theoretical topological framework inherent in the topology. The paper starts with a sketch of the important distinction between ‘state’, ‘process’, and ‘event’ and of the notion of boundary which is relevant to the analysis of aspectuality, then moves on to some aspectual values denoted by the Imperfect and the Aorist in Bulgarian and the Imperfect and the Passe Simple in French. It shows that grammatical tenses must be explicitly linked to basic notions such as stability, change, process, transition, etc. which take on specific semantic meanings depending on the type of temporal reference anchoring (speech act, deictic temporal reference, non deictic relative temporal reference).
Anna Lentovskaja, Classificazione azionale del lessico russo: un paragone con l’italiano [Акциональная классификация русской лексики в ее сопоставлении с итальянской]
This paper introduces an Actional classification of Russian verbs, based on verbal clusters ( Janda 2007, 2008) instead of binary oppositions, and compares it with the Actional classification of Italian verbs developed by Bertinetto (1987, 1997 ss.). This type of approach presupposes syntactical testing of Actional features (telicity, durativity, stativity etc.) of all Russian verbal stems, regardless of their possible attribution to aspectual pairs, and further, their grouping into clusters of lexically derived verbs. The comparison is thus drawn between single Italian verbs and Russian verbal clusters. The contrastive analysis is illustrated with the results of a linguistic test carried out at the Saint-Petersburg State University.
Irina Kobozeva, Variazione delle marche dei nessi semantici interfrastici nel testo russo: parametri, [Параметры варьирования показателей межфразовых семантических связей в русском тексте]
In the paper connectors are analyzed as markers of semantic (= rhetorical) relations in discourse. It is demonstrated that Russian connectors vary as to their semantic potential, the direct / indirect way of conveying the semantic relation in question, the restrictions on the discursive rank (nucleus / satellite) of the textual units they connect, on their modality and on their communicative status in terms of theme / rheme and given / new. The latter is shown to underlie the conjunction splitting. Also such formal parameters of connectors’ variation are discussed as their syntactic nature, part of speech they belong to, the degree of freedom measured in terms of variability of their lexico-syntactic structure. Restrictions on the structural variation of phrasal connectors are discussed and some of them explained.
Francesca Biagini, Proprietà sintattiche e funzionamento delle congiunzioni composte finali nella lingua russa [Синтаксические свойства и функционирование целевых составных союзов в русском языке]
The aim of this work is to describe the grammatical status of Russian purposive phrasal conjunctions (such as dlja togo čtoby and s cel’ju togo čtoby) on the basis of their syntactic functioning and considering the difference in behavior some of them have. Our hypothesis is that the grammatical characteristics of purposive phrasal conjunctions – in part similar to those of the simple conjunction čtoby and in part similar to those of conjunctional syntagms (such as s želaniem [čtoby]) – are determined by their degree of grammaticalization. Five main formal parameters will be used in order to define this degree.
Olga Inkova, Proposizioni correlative in russo e francese: somiglianze e differenze [Соотносительные предложения русского и французского языков: сходства и различия]
The article is aimed at outlining a range of phenomena that can be viewed as relative relations in Russian as well as in French. Russian is characterized by the use of demonstrative pronouns introducing subordinate clauses in the main clause. If the subordinate clause precedes the main one, relative words’ scope is extended to the phrase’s scope, and semantic correlation based on the relations among quality, quantity and tense identity corresponds to syntactic correlation.
Maria Cristina Gatti, Elementi connettivi nel discorso argomentativo e marche dell’argomentatività nella lingua russa [Соединительные элементы в аргументативном дискурсе и показате-ли аргументативности в русском языке]
The article focuses on linguistic markers of argumentation in Russian and on the cues they can provide for the reconstruction of standpoints and arguments in argumentative discourse. The analysis of the constitutive relations of argumentative discourse is carried out within the broader perspective of Congruity Theory, a semantic-pragmatic approach to text cohesion which allows to identify the specificity of argumentative speech acts. Particular attention is devoted to the analysis of the argumentative speech act of conclusion and of the modal marker used in Russian for its linguistic manifestation, described also in its contrastive aspects. Some considerations are finally developed on the possible implications of the characterization of argumentative speech acts for the description of Russian language, in particular for the semasiological analysis of the communicative functions of Russian discourse particles.
Anna Bonola, Funzioni testuali e pragmatiche delle particelle russe: un confronto fra russo e italiano [Текстуальные и прагматические функции русских частиц: Сопоста-вительный анализ русского и итальянского языков]
The article analyses Russian particles with textual and pragmatic functions, i.e. which create textual cohesion and express the speakers’ attitude and situational references. The particles are interpreted as markers of sequential connectives, Eddo Rigotti’s concept which indicates a predicate at textual level which includes both logico-semantic and pragmatic suppositions among arguments. The analysis of the examples concerns the particle ved’, interpreted as a sequential connective marker and its Italian translations. It is noted that Russian particles are rendered in Italian partially by discourse markers or through syntactic tools. Discourse markers include adverbs and particles (often clearly deverbal), but Italian appears to attribute fewer pragmatic-textual functions than Russian to these particles.
Roman Govorucho, Qualche osservazione sull’uso dei verbi proposizionali in italiano e in russo [Глаголы пропозициональной установки в итальянском и русском текстах]
The paper considers ways in which predicates are treated in Russian and Italian. Comparative analysis of translations from Italian into Russian shows that the former tends to use them more widely than the latter. Predicates of propositional attitude (mainly verbs of speech as well as verbs of emotive, mental and perceptional semantics) have been analysed and classified according to their semantics; to their obligatory/arbitrary character; to the reasons for their use in the sentence. The main conclusion is that in Italian modus elements are more obligatory/manifest, while in Russian they prove to be fully or partially reduced.
Maria Isola, La struttura informativa dell’enunciato e le sue modalita di espressione in russo e in italiano [Коммуникативная струтура высказывания в русском и итальянском языках]
This paper will provide a comparative analysis of the set of formal devices used to code the topiccomment relation in Italian and Russian. The primary focus of the analysis is to highlight how Italian prefers to encode the topic-comment relation by using those formal structures, which allow to maintain or to repristinate the basic word order of the italian sentence SVO. The analyzed corpus will consist of a number of sentences from the novel Heart of a dog by Michail Bulgakov and five of his italian translations. The aim of the paper is to show how basic word order SVO exerts influence on the way topic-comment relation are formally expressed in the italian sentence, and how his maintenance often leads to a wrong translation of the communicative component of the original sentence.
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